New Discovery Provides Clue to How Iguanas Got to Pacific Islands

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A new iguana has been discovered on Fiji, an island country in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Named Brachylophus bulabula (bula means “hello” in Fijian), the colorful new species joins only two other living Pacific iguana species, one of which is critically endangered, U.S. Geological Survey scientists said today.

Brachylophus bulabula female on Kadavu Island, Fiji

Photo copyright Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic 

“Pacific iguanas have almost disappeared as the result of human presence. Two species were eaten to extinction after people arrived nearly 3,000 years ago. The three living Brachylophus iguana species face threats from loss and alteration of their habitat, as well as from feral cats, mongooses and goats that eat iguanas or their food source,” the agency said.

iguana 2.jpgThe discovery is published in a special edition of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B that pays tribute to Charles Darwin’s contribution to the Pacific region.

The mystery of how the Pacific iguanas originally arrived has long puzzled biologists and geographers. Their closest relatives are found nearly 5,000 miles away across the ocean in the New World, according to the USGS.

“The distinctive Fijian iguanas are famous for their beauty and also their unusual occurrence in the middle of the Pacific Ocean because all of their closest relatives are in the Americas,” said Scott Keogh, an Associate Professor at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, and lead author of the study.

Brachylophus bulabula male in threat posture on Kadavu Island, Fiji

Photo copyright Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic

The highest islands of Fiji have been continuously above sea level for at least the last 16 million years, and the current study’s findings suggest that the Pacific iguanas, both extinct and living, were likely on the islands much of that time.

Ancestors of the Pacific iguanas may have arrived up to 13 million years ago after making a 5,000-mile rafting trip from the New World, the researchers said.

New understanding of the species diversity in the Pacific iguana group is a first step in identifying conservation targets, said Robert Fisher, a research zoologist at the USGS in San Diego, and coauthor of the study.

iguana 3.jpgAn important study finding for conservation of the genetic diversity in these iguanas is that, with only one exception, each of the 13 islands where living iguanas were sampled showed at least one distinct iguana genetic line that was not seen elsewhere.

The Fiji crested iguana, Brachylophus vitiensis, is gone from many islands it once occupied and is now listed as critically endangered on the “Red List” of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

“Unfortunately, this new study indicates that the other previously-identified Pacific iguana species, Brachyophus fasciatus, is probably critically endangered also,” Fisher said.

Realizing that scientists are just now describing the diversity in even such colorful and distinctive groups as Pacific iguanas is important in setting biodiversity targets for the Pacific Basin, Fisher said.


Brachylophus bulabula male on Ovalau Island, Fiji

Photo copyright Peter S. Harlow

“This island basin is currently under attack by a number of invasive species such as the brown tree snake, various rat species and the coqui frog, which tend to reduce biodiversity,” said Fisher.

“Climate change may reduce coastal habitats and alter coastlines in the Pacific, further putting biodiversity at risk. A more accurate understanding of the patterns and processes that impact diversity in these unique island groups will help land managers set appropriate goals for conservation of these resources.”

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Brachylophus bulabula juvenile on Kadavu Island, Fiji

Photo copyright Paddy Ryan, Ryan Photographic

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