Dog “Guilt” Is All in the Mind of Human Owner, Study Suggests

Dogs look guilty when when they do something they know they shouldn’t do, right?

Wrong. The perceived look of shame is all in the owner’s imagination, according to research.


“What dog owner has not come home to a broken vase or other valuable items and a guilty-looking dog slouching around the house,” write researchers in the “Canine Behaviour and Cognition” special issue of Elsevier’s journal Behavioural Processes. They tested whether dogs really are embarrassed by playing mind tricks on their owners.

“By ingeniously setting up conditions where the owner was misinformed as to whether their dog had really committed an offense, Alexandra Horowitz, assistant professor from Barnard College in New York, uncovered the origins of the ‘guilty look’ in dogs,” Behavioural Processes said in a statement.


NGS photo of a dog that is not guilty by Robert Sisson

“Horowitz was able to show that the human tendency to attribute a ‘guilty look’ to a dog was not due to whether the dog was indeed guilty. Instead, people see ‘guilt’ in a dog’s body language when they believe the dog has done something it shouldn’t have–even if the dog is in fact completely innocent of any offense.”

Asked to Leave the Room

During the study, owners were asked to leave the room after ordering their dogs not to eat a tasty treat.

While the owner was away, Horowitz gave some of the dogs this forbidden treat before asking the owners back into the room.


In some trials the owners were told that their dog had eaten the forbidden treat; in others, they were told their dog had behaved properly and left the treat alone.

What the owners were told, however, often did not correlate with reality.

“Whether the dogs’ demeanor included elements of the ‘guilty look’ had little to do with whether the dogs had actually eaten the forbidden treat or not,” the journal said.

“Dogs looked most ‘guilty’ if they were admonished by their owners for eating the treat. In fact, dogs that had been obedient and had not eaten the treat, but were scolded by their (misinformed) owners, looked more ‘guilty’ than those that had, in fact, eaten the treat.


NGS photo by John E. Fletcher and Robert F. Sisson

“Thus the dog’s guilty look is a response to the owner’s behavior, and not necessarily indicative of any appreciation of its own misdeeds.”

This study sheds new light on the natural human tendency to interpret animal behavior in human, the researchers explained.


“Anthropomorphisms compare animal behavior to human behavior, and if there is some superficial similarity, then the animal behavior will be interpreted in the same terms as superficially similar human actions. This can include the attribution of higher-order emotions such as guilt or remorse to the animal.”

The editor of the special issue, Clive D.L. Wynne of the Department of Psychology, University of Florida, explained, “this is a remarkably powerful demonstration of the need for careful experimental designs if we are to understand the human-dog relationship and not just reify our natural prejudices about animal behavior.”

NGS photo by Rebecca Hale

Dogs are the oldest domesticated species and have a uniquely intimate role in the lives of millions of people, Wynne added. “Recent research on dogs has indicated more human-like forms of reasoning about what people know than has been demonstrated even in chimpanzees.”

The research article “Disambiguating the ‘guilty look’: Salient prompts to a familiar dog behaviour” by Alexandra Horowitz, appears in Behavioural Processes, Volume 81, Issue 3.

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More than forty years in U.S., UK, and South African media gives David Max Braun global perspective and experience across multiple storytelling platforms. His coverage of science, nature, politics, and technology has been published/broadcast by the BBC, CNN, NPR, AP, UPI, National Geographic, TechWeb, De Telegraaf, Travel World, and Argus South African Newspapers. He has published two books and won several journalism awards. In his 22-year career at National Geographic he was VP and editor in chief of National Geographic Digital Media, and the founding editor of the National Geographic Society blog, hosting a global discussion on issues resonating with the Society's mission and initiatives. He also directed the Society side of the Fulbright-National Geographic Digital Storytelling Fellowship, awarded to Americans seeking the opportunity to spend nine months abroad, engaging local communities and sharing stories from the field with a global audience. A regular expert on National Geographic Expeditions, David also lectures on storytelling for impact. He has 120,000 followers on social media: Facebook  Twitter  LinkedIn