Rhino Poaching in Africa a Crisis, IUCN Says

Well-equipped, sophisticated organized crime syndicates have killed more than 800 African rhinos in the past three years — just for their horns, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said this weekend.

“With the most serious poaching upsurge in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya, Africa’s top rhino experts recently met in South Africa to assess the status of rhinos across the continent and to identify strategies to combat the poaching crisis,” the Switzerland-based advocacy charity said in a statement released Friday.

The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s Rhino & Tiger Conservation Fund, WWF’s African Rhino Programme, International Rhino Foundation, Save the Rhino International and South African National Parks sponsored the meeting of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) African Rhino Specialist Group (AfRSG), biologists and wildlife managers, as well as government representatives from Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

“Although good biological management and anti-poaching efforts have led to modest population gains for both species of African rhino, we are still very concerned about the increasing involvement of organized criminal poaching networks, and that, unless the rapid escalation in poaching in recent years can be halted, continental rhino numbers could once again start to decline,” said Richard Emslie, scientific officer for AfRSG.


Photo courtesy of Black Rhino Monitoring Project sponsored by the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation.


South Africa alone lost 333 rhinos last year and so far this year has lost more than 70, IUCN added. “Most rhino horns leaving Africa are destined for Southeast Asian medicinal markets that are believed to be driving the poaching epidemic. In particular, Vietnamese nationals have been repeatedly implicated in rhino crimes in South Africa.”

According to IUCN, black rhinos (Diceros bicornis) currently number 4,840 (up from 4,240 in 2007), while white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) are more numerous, with a population of 20,150 (up from 17,500 in 2007). “Population numbers are increasing, however, with the rise in poaching, there is still cause for concern due to inadequate funding to combat well-resourced organized criminals,” IUCN said.

The black rhino is assessed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Critically Endangered, considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. The white rhino is assessed as Near Threatened, close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future.

The AfRSG urged greater cooperation between wildlife investigators, police and prosecutors; magistrates and judges to be more sensitive to rhino issues; and assistance in developing new tools and technologies to detect and intercept rhino poachers and horn traffickers. While the number of arrests has increased there is an urgent need for improved conviction rates and increased penalties for rhino-related crimes in some countries, they said.

Photo courtesy of Black Rhino Monitoring Project sponsored by the David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation.

Praise for Efforts to Combat Poaching

The rhino experts also commended recent initiatives to combat poaching. These include the establishment of a National Wildlife Crime Reaction Unit in South Africa, increasing protection throughout the rhinos’ range, DNA fingerprinting of rhino horn, regional information sharing and engaging with the authorities in Vietnam. In addition, wildlife agencies are working closely with private and community rhino custodians, as well as support organizations, to protect rhinos.

“In South Africa, a large number of rhinos live on private land. Rhino management, including control of rhino horn stockpiles and security, needs to be improved and coordinated among rhino holders,” said Simon Stuart, chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. “This is essential if we are going to face the poaching crisis head on.”

In some countries, IUCN said, white rhinos are still hunted as trophies. “Some professional hunters have demonstrated questionable and unethical behaviour, adding that improved management of the allocation and monitoring of hunting permit applications, especially in some South African provinces, needs urgent attention,” the group of experts noted..

Read more about the war against rhinos.

12418031_10153900711084116_8462971761216697621_nDavid Braun is director of outreach with the digital and social media team illuminating the National Geographic Society’s explorer, science, and education programs.

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  • caroline hurry

    So long as rhinos are worth more dead than alive, the problem will continue. Farming the pachyderms is the best solution. Read more at http://www.travelgurus.co.za/a-horny-dilemma

  • David Braun

    Thanks Caroline–and for the link to Kathy’s blog. There has been much creative thinking about this issue and a number of ideas have come out of it, including farming of rhinos.

    Farming rhinos for their horns might make sense, if everyone respected the rules and ethics of a system which protected wild rhinos and eliminated unethical harvesting.

    But most experts are opposed to farming wild animals, and not only on ethical and compassionate grounds. They believe farming would only enlarge the market for animal parts and legitimize the chain of demand and supply. There is also the problem that it could make it easier to hide poached animals/parts under labels of farmed products.

    The World Bank investigated tiger farming as a possible solution to the problem of poaching of the big cats for the traditional medicine and curio markets, and concluded that the risks of legalized farming of tigers are too great a gamble for the world to take. (Tiger Farming Could Cause Irreversible Harm to Wild Tigers, World Bank Says: http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2009/07/10/tiger_farming_could_harm_wild_tigers/)

    I understand that there is growing concern and regret in South Africa about lion farming, especially for canned hunting (http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2010/06/24/south_africa_lion_hunting_scandal/) and for lion parts (http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2010/07/02/lion-bone_wine_threatens_big_cats/).

    There has got to be a better way to address the rhino crisis. We must, as you have indicated, flip the economic equation. If rhinos are worth a lot more alive than dead then a system will develop to protect them. But rather than farming, I submit that tourism and community sharing of the benefits of having rhinos in our midst–benefits like jobs, income from supporting services, schools, roads, water pumps–would be sustainable and restore the balance between humans and nature. Rhinos will survive if enough people want them to be with us.

    Education is certainly also part of the solution. It is imperative that people understand and believe the science: rhino horns are not medicine and have no magical power. Even that has an economic side: Consumers are wasting their money buying animal parts that are nothing but snake oil (pun intended). If we left nature alone the Earth would be a healthier place to live, and fewer of us would get sick.

  • Adam Bray

    I found a piece of rhino skin on display in a shop in Vietnam last year. I complained vehemently to numerous environmental orgs, posted it on my blog, tweeted about it… and nobody seemed to ever care.

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