National Geographic Society Newsroom

South Africa’s Rhino Slaughter Rages on

  The shadow of rhino poaching keeps darkening the magnificent landscape that places South Africa among the most biodiverse countries in the world. Already the figure for the year so far stands at about 200 rhinos killed. This has conservationists fearing that the toll for the year could end up exceeding the shocking 333 killed...

NGS stock photo of white rhino in imFolozi by Volkmar K. Wentzel


The shadow of rhino poaching keeps darkening the magnificent landscape that places South Africa among the most biodiverse countries in the world. Already the figure for the year so far stands at about 200 rhinos killed. This has conservationists fearing that the toll for the year could end up exceeding the shocking 333 killed last year.

The poachers keep pouncing practically daily, shooting the helpless animals in state and private parks, often using high-powered assault rifles, and then hacking off the horns for the international syndicates to smuggle to the mostly Far Eastern markets where it is mistakenly believed by many to have healing properties.

The relentless onslaught on the endangered species is being carried on in the face of stepped-up and better coordinated security operations involving state law enforcement agencies, conservation organizations and private reserve owners. The military has even been called in to patrol Kruger National Park, the country’s flagship reserve which houses more than half of its approximately 20,000 rhinos.

At least 20 poachers have already been killed in shootouts, mostly with the soldier patrols, but still Kruger Park accounts for no fewer that 126 of the close to 200 animals killed this year. Arrests have been put at 123, with six convictions and many awaiting trial.

WWF, the respected conservation organization, has warned that unless the problem is tackled, more rhinos could die this year than last year.

Joseph Okori, its African rhino programme coordinator, said: “Poaching is being undertaken almost without exception by sophisticated criminals, sometimes hunting from helicopters and using automatic weapons. South Africa is fighting a war against organized crime that risks reversing the outstanding conservation gains it made over the past century.”

He added: “Swift prosecutions of wildlife crimes and strict sentences for perpetrators will serve as a deterrent to potential criminals. Poachers should be shown no leniency.”

Stiffer sentences have indeed been imposed on poachers and smugglers in terms of new guidelines set for such cases, but many suspects are still allowed bail, which they easily pay with their ill-gotten proceeds and then flee.

Part of the trouble seems that officials charged with the protection of nature do not always sing from the same song sheet. They sometimes seem to be at distinct variance as to how seriously to take this threat to one of the country’s most enigmatic and endangered species.

One of the most glaring instances of this was reported earlier this month in The Star, Johannesburg’s oldest and biggest quality daily newspaper. Its front-page headline read: “Rhino hunting scandal – Officials issue permits to poaching accused kingpin”.

The report by Kristen van Schif concerned a game-ranch and hunting-firm owner, Dawie Groenewald, who was last year arrested along with two veterinarians  and several other people in Limpopo province, which comprises the scenic north-western portion of South Africa and houses some of the country’s most beautiful nature parks, including the northern section of Kruger National Park and Mapungubwe National Park, a World Heritage Site that covers the archaeological remnants of an ancient African kingdom. Kruger Park in particular, but several of the province’s other parks as well, has been the target of rhino poachers.

The suspects were released on bail pending further investigations. Groenewald had to deposit a whopping (South African currency terms) R1-million (about U.S.$150,000). This was later reduced to R100,000 (about $15,000).

Part of the bail terms were that the suspects were not allowed to engage in activities relating to rhino. However, the report quoted the political head of the provincial administration’s environmental department, Pitsi Moloto, as saying that permits to transport and hunt rhino, among other wild animals, were issued to him because the period prohibiting such activities by him had expired.

An official in his department told the paper the permits were issued on the basis that he was innocent till proven guilty. However, Rynette Coetzee, project executant of the law and policy program of the Endangered Wildlife Trust, one of South Africa’s oldest and most esteemed conservation organizations, pointed out that permits got issued at the discretion of the department, which was mandated by the country’s constitution and its laws to protect biodiversity.

Groenewald told the reporter he did not understand what the fuss was about.  But Pelham Jones, head of the Private Rhino Owners Association, said it was “deeply repugnant” that a person under investigation could continue to trade freely.

Meanwhile, further evidence of the international tentacles of the rhino smuggling business has come with the arrest earlier this month of a Thai businessman in Johannesburg on suspicion of having falsely obtained permits for rhino hunting. Such permits are allowed for trophy hunting in terms of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The arrest was carried out by the elite police unit known as the Hawks in co-operation with the state’s revenue services and a forensic investigator.

Several citizens of Vietnam have also been apprehended this year, confirming suspicions that the country has become one of the major markets for rhino horn next to China. There have been suggestions that the country’s authorities are reluctant to crack down on the illicit trade because government officials are themselves primary consumers.

About National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. Since 1888, National Geographic has pushed the boundaries of exploration, investing in bold people and transformative ideas, providing more than 14,000 grants for work across all seven continents, reaching 3 million students each year through education offerings, and engaging audiences around the globe through signature experiences, stories and content. To learn more, visit or follow us on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook.

Meet the Author

Leon Marshall
Nat Geo News Watch contributing editor Leon Marshall is an environmental writer in South Africa. A leading political journalist and executive editor for Africa’s largest newspaper group for years, he has won several awards, including a 2004 Reuters-IUCN Media Award for Excellence in Environmental Reporting. Leon has covered climate change from a global and African perspective, having attended conferences on the issue in many parts of the world. He has written extensively on the ambitious transfrontier-parks program of the sub-continent and is now writing a book on the subject.