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The Epic Life of an Iconic Gorilla– “Timmy” Remembered (1959-2011)

Contributing Editor Jordan Schaul remembers a zoo icon he knew personally. I learned late Tuesday that a gentle giant had passed away at the Louisville Zoo.  Timmy was the oldest male gorilla in North America. He was once the subject of controversy, but adored by people across the nation and perhaps around the world. I first...

Contributing Editor Jordan Schaul remembers a zoo icon he knew personally.

Timmy (Courtesy of the Louisville Zoo)

I learned late Tuesday that a gentle giant had passed away at the Louisville Zoo Timmy was the oldest male gorilla in North America. He was once the subject of controversy, but adored by people across the nation and perhaps around the world.

I first became acquainted with Timmy as a very young zoo visitor in the early 70s and then briefly as a seasonal animal keeper in the early 90s.  Later, I was privileged to work with the oldest of his 13 offspring–Okpara–a male born at the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Bronx Zoo  in 1993 and raised in Cleveland.

Timmy was wild born in Cameroon in 1959 and made his first public appearance in front of the American public at the Memphis Zoo  in 1960.  At just under 5 years of age he was relocated to what is now the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. He would spend the next quarter of a century paired with a handful of female gorillas in residence at the Northeastern Ohio facility. For most of his tenure in Cleveland, Timmy showed little to no interest in female companions and failed to sire any offspring.

The silverback finally courted Kate–an infertile cage-mate. The relationship blossomed, but the romance with Kate was not to be long-lived.  Their “love affair” ended amid controversy when Timmy was loaned to the Bronx Zoo to breed with reproductively viable females. 

Moving him to the Bronx Zoo to “pass” on his genes–deemed valuable to the captive population of lowland gorillas–was not met with unanimous approval. The sentiment of some members of the public was that a separation from Kate for the sake of gorilla conservation was more than unfair to the two gorillas who had developed an apparently strong bond and “loving” relationship.

Housed indoors with humble accommodations for much of his life, Timmy lived in enclosures built for an earlier era–when great ape husbandry was focused on keeping the animals alive. 

Long after Timmy’s departure for Cleveland in the 60’s, the Memphis Zoo built Primate Canyon which includes a gorilla habitat and exhibits for 9 other species of primates.   After Timmy left Cleveland for the Bronx Zoo in the 90’s, the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo created an outdoor gorilla exhibit. The outdoor enclosure leads inside to what was Timmy’s original indoor habitat in the Zoo’s Primate, Cat, and Aquatics Building. The exhibit currently houses two bachelor gorillas.  I can recall visiting with Timmy’s primary keeper, the late Billy Seamen. Billy used to prepare Timmy’s dinner while listening to classical music.  I always wondered if Timmy had an affinity for it– the music–that is. I know he liked his dinner.

In more recent years, advances in preventive medicine and great ape husbandry programs afforded Timmy the luxury of residing in posh gorilla habitats that were fully furnished and heavily enriched. At both the Bronx Zoo’s award-winning Congo Gorilla Forest and the Louisville Zoo’s award-winning Gorilla Forest Timmy had options for everything from substrates to females. These state-of-the-art facilities allowed Timmy to live just as you’d imagine–like royalty–or at least royalty for a gorilla.  

Most of us thought of Timmy as a celebrity and ultimately an ambassador for lowland gorillas worldwide. He will be missed.

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Meet the Author

Author Photo Jordan Carlton Schaul
With training in wildlife ecology, conservation medicine and comparative psychology, Dr. Schaul's contributions to Nat Geo Voices have covered a range of environmental and social topics. He draws particular attention to the plight of imperiled species highlighting issues at the juncture or nexus of sorta situ wildlife conservation and applied animal welfare. Sorta situ conservation practices are comprised of scientific management and stewardship of animal populations ex situ (in captivity / 'in human care') and in situ (free-ranging / 'in nature'). He also has a background in behavior management and training of companion animals and captive wildlife, as well as conservation marketing and digital publicity. Jordan has shared interviews with colleagues and public figures, as well as editorial news content. In addition, he has posted narratives describing his own work, which include the following examples: • Restoration of wood bison to the Interior of Alaska while (While Animal Curator at Alaska Wildlife Conservation Center and courtesy professor at the University of Alaska) • Rehabilitation of orphaned sloth bears exploited for tourists in South Asia (While executive consultant 'in-residence' at the Agra Bear Rescue Center managed by Wildlife SOS) • Censusing small wild cat (e.g. ocelot and margay) populations in the montane cloud forests of Costa Rica for popular publications with 'The Cat Whisperer' Mieshelle Nagelschneider • Evaluating the impact of ecotourism on marine mammal population stability and welfare off the coast of Mexico's Sea of Cortez (With Boston University's marine science program) Jordan was a director on boards of non-profit wildlife conservation organizations serving nations in Africa, North and South America and Southeast Asia. He is also a consultant to a human-wildlife conflict mitigation organization in the Pacific Northwest. Following animal curatorships in Alaska and California, he served as a charter board member of a zoo advocacy and outreach organization and later as its executive director. Jordan was a member of the Communication and Education Commission of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (CEC-IUCN) and the Bear Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (BSG-SSC-IUCN). He has served on the advisory council of the National Wildlife Humane Society and in service to the Bear Taxon Advisory Group of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA Bear TAG). In addition he was an ex officio member of council of the International Association for Bear Research and Management. Contact Email: