Changing Planet


NOTE: I am interrupting a series of blogs that I’ve been writing about Einstein, in order to write a few on NASA, on the occasion of the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program.

Ten days apart NASA treated us to a pair of spectacular aerial shows, first over the monuments of Washington, DC, and then over the skyscrapers of New York City.

On April 17 the shuttle Discovery was carried piggy-pack style on a shuttle carrier, a modified Boeing 747, from Cape Canaveral to Washington, DC. When it arrived over the Nation’s Capitol it circled over the Mall and monuments repeatedly, allowing thousands of Washingtonians to watch in awe, mixed with sadness. On television broadcasts around the world, hundreds of millions of others also watched with similar feelings of ambivalence. A good friend and former physics student, Bonnie Norris, now a NASA official, wrote, “I was lucky enough to watch the flyover with my NASA colleagues. There was lots of clapping and shouting as the shuttle approached, but as it departed from view the silence was deafening…”

NASA photograph of the Discovery flying over Capital and Washington Monument

After flying onto nearby Dulles Airport, the two vehicles were decoupled, with the Discovery transported by land for final retirement at the Air and Space Museum’s Udvar Hazy Center. For a week, however, it sat nose-to-nose with its sister shuttle Enterprise, retired at the museum since 1985. This was an occasion for dual-portraits by professional photographers and lay visitors.

An official NASA photograph shows the Enterprise over New York’s skyline

Then on April 27 it was the Enterprise’s turn to be flown by the Boeing 747, this time to New York City. NASA photographs of the two giant birds flying in tandem over the city’s landmarks — the Statue of Liberty, Hudson River, George Washington Bridge and the soaring skyscrapers — was again awe inspiring, as well as resonating with sadness.

The Statue of Liberty and the Empire State Building with the Enterprise circling overhead

My grandparents, visiting New York in the mid-1920s, had purchased a set of postcards that is now in my possession. Connected in accordion-like fashion, “The City of Skyscrapers,” is a collection of a dozen cards depicting scenes from the city — the Flat Iron Building, Woolworth Building, Brooklyn Bridge… but conspicuous in the absence of the Empire State Building, not to be built until 1929-1931. Among the vintage postcards is a biplane flying over the Statue of Liberty.

Then on another postcard labeled, “Future New York,” one can see elevated train tracks resting atop buildings, and prominent in the air, a tri-plane and a dirigible. It is the tri-plane that reminded me of how difficult it is to predict the direction that technology will take. Jet planes, harnessing of nuclear energy, liquid fuel rockets, satellites… and manned-visits to the moon were no more than 4-5 decades in the future when the postcard was printed. So was computing technology, symbiotic and irreversible in its connection to the aerospace industry. Computers allowed landing on the moon and navigation of unmanned space vehicles, and aerospace technology led to the miniaturization of computers, and ultimately desktop computing.


Left. The biplane over the Statue of Liberty. Right. The tri-plane over a futuristic skyline of New York, with seriously elevated train tracks. The wings of the tri-plane are reminiscent of the Enterprise- Boeing 747 Combination

My gratitude to Veronique Brown for the use of the lead photo, and to Bonnie Norris for her gracious words. NEXT: NASA PART II. “MANNED SPACE AND TRAGIC FAILURES”

Bulent Atalay, a scientist, artist and author, has been described by NPR, PBS and the Washington Post as a “Modern Renaissance Man.” He is the author of two successful books on the intersection of art, science and mathematics, with Leonardo, the pre-eminent Renaissance man, serving as the foil. His best selling book, "Math and the Mona Lisa," (Smithsonian Books, 2004) has appeared in 13 languages. Professor Atalay's academic background is in theoretical physics. He travels around the world lecturing at academic institutions and on cruise ships on the "A-subjects," art, archaeology, astrophysics, atomic physics and Ataturk, confessing that he knows much less about the "B-subjects," business, banking, biology and botany... He is the President of the Ataturk Society of America (ASA), dedicated to promoting Ataturk's ideals of science and reason over dogma and superstition, of a secular state with full equality of genders. For more details click on Bulent Atalay
  • […] National Geographic […]

  • B Jones

    The era of the Space Shuttle has been an exciting time in history! You captured the essence of it beautifully.

    Let’s look to the future optimistically with the hope of continued research and progress in space exploration and development that is equally or more meaningful to mankind as the era of the Space Shuttle.

    • In the 3rd installment of this series on NASA, I plan to write about the discoveries that have been made both in fundamental science and in technology. It appears that even though the manned space travel is going into a dormant period, it appears that by 2030 a permanent base will be built on the moon. Thank you for your comment.


  • Indian Hair

    My husband and i got joyous Jordan could finish off his homework via the precious recommendations he got from your very own web site. It’s not at all simplistic to simply possibly be freely giving solutions some other people could have been trying to sell. And we recognize we now have the website owner to thank for that. Those explanations you made, the simple blog navigation, the friendships you will assist to instill – it’s most exceptional, and it is facilitating our son in addition to the family recognize that the topic is excellent, which is certainly quite essential. Thank you for all!

About the Blog

Researchers, conservationists, and others share stories, insights and ideas about Our Changing Planet, Wildlife & Wild Spaces, and The Human Journey. More than 50,000 comments have been added to 10,000 posts. Explore the list alongside to dive deeper into some of the most popular categories of the National Geographic Society’s conversation platform Voices.

Opinions are those of the blogger and/or the blogger’s organization, and not necessarily those of the National Geographic Society. Posters of blogs and comments are required to observe National Geographic’s community rules and other terms of service.

Voices director: David Braun (

Social Media