Changing Planet

Einstein’s letter to Ataturk’s Turkey

A letter written by Albert Einstein to Kemal Ataturk, Founder of the Republic of Turkey. It would have mutually beneficial effects — saving the lives of countless Jewish physicians and other scientists, while revolutionizing higher education in Turkey.


Einstein's letter to Ataturk represents an intersection in the lives of two of the most extraordinary figures of the 20th century: Einstein, Time Magazine's "Individual of the 20th Century," and Ataturk, highest scoring leader of the 20th Century, according to the ranking in Arnold Ludwig's book, "King of the Mountain."

A video prepared by Çankaya University in Ankara gives the historical background to the letter. According to the narrative (in Turkish) in 1949 Einstein meets a young foreign student, Münir Ülgür, at Princeton. When he learns that Ülgür is a student from Turkey, he shows visible excitement, “Do you know,” he says, “…your nation produced the greatest leader of the century!” Einstein then goes on to reminisce about having received an invitation from Ataturk in the early 1930s, “… to come and teach in one of our universities. However, as fate would have it,” he continues, “…it was not to be.”

Münir Ülgür in his later years in Turkey.

[Note. In the early 1930s Einstein, already an international celebrity, was serving as a visiting scholar at Oxford’s Christ Church, while also trying to wade through a stack of permanent job offers. He had finally narrowed his choices down to three, Oxford, Caltech and Princeton University (Princeton, it seems, was his first choice, “… they were the first  to accept relativity.”) when a brand new institution emerges to lure him. Abraham Flexner, who had earlier made Johns Hopkins into a premier medical institution — first by introducing basic research into medicine in accord with the German model, and second, by accepting women into the program — had a new idea. He approached the Bamberger Family (of department store fame) to fund a new scientific ‘think tank’ in Princeton, New Jersey. The institution, the Institute for Advanced Study, would allow scholars to engage in pure mathematics and theoretical physics research (no laboratories), to collaborate with each other, without being burdened by teaching students. Then at the Bamberger Family’s insistence, Flexner would journey to England and convince Einstein to join the faculty of the Institute as one of his first faculty recruits. Einstein would serve as the nucleus around which other great scientists and mathematicians, many of them European Jews, would revolve.]

Banner reading, "Boycott Jewish Capital" (1933). Holocaust Museum.

Meanwhile, in the late 1920s and early 30s, most of the world was immersed in the Great Depression. Germany, embittered by the suffocating terms imposed on it by the victorious allies, must have seen the future as especially hopeless, akin to a visitation by a medieval plague. Just when things could not seem more bleak, in 1933 Paul von Hindenburg, President of the Weimar Republic, made a disastrous decision. He appointed as the Chancellor of the Republic, Adolph Hitler, the head of the socialist, ultra-nationalist Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (Nazi Party). The climate of Antisemitism, percolating for years, suddenly erupted violently under the Nazis. Unemployed young men, clad in brown shirts, became the Nazi’s Stoßtruppen (“shock troops” or storm troopers), hunting for Jews in their murderous rampage. Systematically painted as unpatriotic, Jews were the first to be laid off from their jobs.

Sami M. Günzberg, a Jewish Turkish dentist, was attending an International Conference in Paris of the Union for the Protection of the Well-Being of the Jewish Population (OSE). It was there that he would meet Albert Einstein, the Honorary President of the organization, and together hatch a plan.  Einstein would write a letter to the Prime Minister, Ismet Inönü, “… I beg to apply to your Excellency to allow forty professors and medical doctors from Germany to continue their scientific and medical work in Turkey. The above mentioned cannot practice further in Germany on account of the laws… in granting this request your Government will not only perform an act of high humanity, but it will bring profit to your own country.” Einstein’s letter is dated September 17, 1933. By September 30, Günzberg would personally translate Einstein’s letter into Turkish, and with a cover letter of his own, submit it to the Turkish Government. And although Einstein’s letter is most likely meant for Ataturk, it is sent in care of the Prime Minister, Ismet Inönü. The cover letter is signed, “Dis Tabibi (Dentist), Sami Günzberg, Beyoglu, Istiklal Caddesi, No. 356.”

Inönü’s handwritten message at the bottom of the letter reads, “Their salaries will be unaffordable for us.” He rejects the offer. Above the words, “Your Excellency,” appears the rectangular stamp: “Office of the Prime Minister,” replete with a star and crescent. A handwritten note, “Maarif Vekaletine” (to the Education Ministry) is seen just above the date “9-10-933” (October 9, 1933). But when Ataturk hears about the letter from Einstein, he convenes a meeting with the principles, presumably the Prime Minister, the Minister of Education and Dr. Günzberg, and Einstein’s offer is accepted. The invitation is then extended to the German Jewish scientists, and the reform of higher education is underway, catalyzed by Einstein’s letter.

According to another source, Death on the High Sea: the Untold Story of the Struma, it was originally Atatürk’s idea to offer asylum to German Jewish scientists. The authors, Franz and Collins write, “Ataturk had set an ambitious course for modernizing his country along European lines. He had banned the traditional fez, ordering his countrymen to wear fedoras instead. He had changed to a Latin alphabet, introduced modern dancing and European music, and moved the Capital to Ankara… As it happened Atatürk had considerable problems with his teeth, and his dentist was Sami Günzberg. In their many lengthy sessions, Günzberg had spoken with Atatürk about the plight of Germany’s Jews under Hitler. Turkey’s leader had an idea: He could offer asylum to some of the most gifted Jews, they would help him transform his country into a modern state.”

The book cover of Rifat N. Bali's book, “The Master Dentist of the Seraglio and the Republic”, showing a rare portrait of Sami Günzberg.

Reminiscent of an early-day Billy Graham, the evangelist who was welcomed into the White House by 11 Democratic and Republican Presidents, from Lyndon B. Johnson to George W. Bush, Dr. Günzberg was the dentist of the Ottoman Court, treating Sultans Abdulhamid II and Vahideddin. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, he would become the dentist of the leaders of the Republic of Turkey. He treated Ataturk, who even had a dental chair installed in Dolmabahçe Palace. He lived on to treat successive Presidents Inönü and Bayar into the 1950s.

It is Atatürk’s hand that is seen in the manner in which history unfolded for the Jews in Turkey during the next few decades. His driving principles, science and reason over superstition and dogma, and diligence and merit over ethnicity and religion, fueled his secular Republic. It would be German and Austrian Jewish physicians, scientists, archaeologist, linguists who would prepare the next generation of Turkish scholars, just as it had been Armenian builders, with reputation for good construction, that had been hired to build  Ankara, the new Capital of Turkey.

In a book by Rifat N. Bali, “Sarayin ve Cumhuriyetin Discibasisi, Sami Günzberg” (“The Master Dentist of the Seraglio and the Republic,” Kitabevi, 2007 ) Günzberg is described as “Dentist, confidante of Sultans and founders of the Turkish Republic, unofficial diplomat, the acting representative of the heirs of Sultan Abdulhamid II… and a conduit for assistance to Jewish refugees from the Nazi genocide in Europe.” The author adds, “Sami Günzberg had resolved never to write his memoirs. Accordingly, it is only with painstaking research in various Turkish and international archives that the author succeeded in piecing together the life and work of the man known to so many in Turkey as simply “Disçibasi Sami Bey” (“Sami Bey, the dentist”).

Not just the forty that Einstein requested, but many scores of German and Austrian Jewish scientists, their families, and their assistants, moved to Turkey. For the next 10-15 years the medical schools, and science and technology departments, especially in Istanbul flourished. By the 1950s many of these scientists immigrated to the newly created State of Israel, and to the United States. They staffed the medical schools of Hopkins and Harvard, Columbia and Chicago. And they came to the physics departments of Princeton and Einstein’s Institute for Advanced Study.

A diptych showing the celebrated cardiac surgeon and TV personality, Dr. Mehmet Oz, and his father, Dr. Mustafa Oz.

I met a number of exceptionally skilled Turkish physicians over the years who all spoke with pride of the world class medical education they had received at the University of Istanbul in the mid-40s. Dr. Mehmet Oz, born in Cleveland in 1960,  is a Turkish American cardiac surgeon and television personality. In an interview on PBS, Dr. Oz, recounts his own father’s experience: before coming to Cleveland from Turkey in the 50s, the senior Dr. Oz had received world class training in medicine in those heady days.


The foregoing story is somewhat evocative of a development four-and-a half centuries earlier. The Ottoman Empire had always been a polyglot, multiracial country, with wide religious tolerance. The Empire’s footprint at its peak resembled that of Rome at its peak, including Anatolia, the Middle East, the Balkans, North Africa, and lands ringing the northern coast of the Black Sea. In the 16th century the Mediterranean was referred to as the “Ottoman Lake.” In 1492, Spain, fresh from expelling the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula, made it clear to the Jews they were no longer welcome, “…convert or leave!” The resulting Jewish exodus led in two directions — east to the Ottoman Empire and northeast to Eastern Europe. In the Ottoman Empire the tradition of family names would not come until Ataturk’s Republic. But in Eastern Europe last names already existed, and the newly arriving immigrants had to pay for their last names. A prevailing practice, however, created restrictions on the names. The wealthy families took names, such as “Diamond”, “Ruby”, “Gold”, “Goldman”, “Goldstine”, “Silver”, “Silverstein”, … in descending order according to cost. Others simply adopted the names of towns and cities they lived in, Irvin Berlin, Lynda Paris… Families of modest means had to settle for more mundane names, such as “Einstein”… [This is an explanation I once heard from the Israeli philosopher of physics, Max Jammer (1915-2010).]


I am grateful to a number of groups and individual friends who inspired this article.

• Hon. Oktay Eksi, Member of Parliament from Istanbul, and a former legendary journalist in Turkey (“Walter Cronkite of Turkey”) who gave a superb keynote speech at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC on the occasion of the May 19, 2012, Ataturk’s birthday, and the National Youth and Sports Day.

• Hon. Steven Cohen (Dem. Tennessee) who read an extraordinarily generous message about Kemal Ataturk into the Congressional Record for May 19, 2012.

• Davut Okutçu, Executive Board Member of the Turkish-American Business Council, who provided additional insight into the final resolution of Einstein’s letter.

• Mesut Ilgin, Economist, Istanbul, who first brought Einstein’s letter to my attention in 2010.

• Izzet Keribar, Photographer extraordinaire, Istanbul, who shared his experience with me as a Jew living in Istanbul, and gave me the two volume collection of photos, Synagogues of Turkey.

• Roy Weinstock, Professor of Psychology, and my consultant on all things Judaic.

• Members of ARKADASLAR, former Members of the Peace Corps who were stationed in Turkey.

Recommended Links

• Video (in Turkish) “Einstein’in Atatürk’e Mektubu” (Einstein’s Letter to Atatürk):

• Arnold Reisman, Turkey’s Modernization: Refugees from Nazism and Atatürk’s Vision (New Academia Publishing, 2006). Most authoritative of all sources.

• Dr. Mehmet Oz, Faces of America Series, Interview of Mehmet Oz by Henry Louis Gates. An endearing 5-minute video,

• Roz Kohen Drohobyczer, “Ataturk’s influence on “Jewish” life in Turkiye, A Personal view.”

• Rifat Bali, “Sarayin ve Cumhuriyetin Discibasisi, Sami Günzberg” (“The Master Dentist of the Seraglio and the Republic,” Kitabevi, 2007)

Death on the Black Sea, Story of the Struma, a converted cattle barge carrying refugees from Eastern Europe to Turkey and Palestine, sinks off the Black Sea Coast of Istanbul, on the early morning of Feb. 24, 1942… after striking a mine (in English).:

Next: Leonardo’s Letter to the Sultan

Bulent Atalay, a scientist, artist and author, has been described by NPR, PBS and the Washington Post as a “Modern Renaissance Man.” He is the author of two successful books on the intersection of art, science and mathematics, with Leonardo, the pre-eminent Renaissance man, serving as the foil. His best selling book, "Math and the Mona Lisa," (Smithsonian Books, 2004) has appeared in 13 languages. Professor Atalay's academic background is in theoretical physics. He travels around the world lecturing at academic institutions and on cruise ships on the "A-subjects," art, archaeology, astrophysics, atomic physics and Ataturk, confessing that he knows much less about the "B-subjects," business, banking, biology and botany... He is the President of the Ataturk Society of America (ASA), dedicated to promoting Ataturk's ideals of science and reason over dogma and superstition, of a secular state with full equality of genders. For more details click on Bulent Atalay
  • B Jones

    This is fascinating! It is an incredible collection of historical facts and presentation of interesting people from Ataturk and Einstein to the popular television personality Dr. Oz. I did not know that Jewish people had to pay for their last names with the wealthiest taking names of the most valuable gems and metals.

  • Jasmine Wang

    Hello Bulent,
    This is a very well researched and written article, with rich knowledge of history.
    Could you send me more links of your articles,please?

  • Ali

    Bulet bey
    Could you please get me the copy of letter Kemal Ataturk wrote of Saudi King to get ready for war if you touch Muhammad’s grave. I will obliged.

  • Bulent Atalay

    It is very unlikely that Ataturk wrote such a letter, since he kept religion and government completely separate. At least, I have never heard of it. If you know anything about it, please let me know. I will, however, ask my friends in the Ataturk Society if they know anything about it. Regards, Bulent

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  • Trio Dans ve Sanat Akademisi

    I don’t even know the way I finished up here, but I assumed this put up used to be good. I do not know who you’re but definitely you’re going to a well-known blogger if you are not already. Cheers!

    • Thank you for your comment, which I approved tentatively. But I do not entirely understand it. Would you kindly explain your comment, or if you prefer, write in Turkish. Thank you, Bulent

  • Drinkware

    I visited various blogs and I find your site amazing. Keep up the good work.

    • Thank you for the kind words. What’s worth doing is worth doing well, and I do have a passion for the topics that I write about.
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  • Becky

    I stumbled upon this article while conducting research for an independent project on Atatürk to present to my AP Human Geography class. Münir Ülgür was my great-uncle. Now deceased, he was a brilliant professor of electromechanics at the Technical University of Istanbul. Just a quick correction as to the spelling of his surname: Ülgür, not Ürgür.

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  • Sezai Simsak

    Merhaba Bulent Amca,
    Ben size burada yayınlanan enformasyon için kalpten teşekkür etmek istiyorum.
    Ben yurtdışında yaşayan ve orada doğdum, ama Atatürk bize verdigi özgürlük unutmadik ve unutturmayacagiz. Sizin yaptığınız çalışmalar mükemmel.
    En derin saygılarımla,

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  • David Davidian

    Interestingly, changes took place in the world between 1935, the date of Einstein’s letter, and the initial military “successes” of the Nazis by 1941. Radical changes took place in Germany and were paralleled in certain other states, especially those having close historical relations with Germany.

    Here is how things changed. A ship carrying 769 Jewish refugees left Romania late in 1941. “The ship was docked in Istanbul on December 16, 1941, due to engine failure. Waiting at the port, the Struma’s passengers learned the British would not give them visas to enter Mandatory Palestine and that they could not disembark in Turkey.

    After a 10-week impasse between British and Turkish diplomats over the refugees, during which the Jewish community of Istanbul provided them with food, the Struma was towed into the Black Sea. The vessel was abandoned about 16 kilometers from the shore. On February 24, 1942, the Soviet Submarine Shch-213 torpedoed the ship, which sank quickly.” There was only one survivor. See:

    • Hello David (if I may, and call me Bulent).

      Thank you for your comment. I knew about the Struma incident, and had heard about a book by two children of a survivor. It is a heart wrenching affair. This is the first time I’ve heard about a Soviet Submarine torpedoing the ship. I will most certainly read the read the link you sent. Meanwhile, in my personal website, there is a link that I wrote as a tribute to my father, Kemal Atalay. (He died 10 years ago, and I wrote it a year or two afterwards.) If you click on and scroll about 2/3 down, you’ll see a reference to the Struma. I will be happy to integrate the information you’ve provided into that tribute.

      Warm regards and thank you again,


  • John Bull

    I think the letter is addressed to the prime minister not Ataturk, the president.

    The president of the cabinet of ministers is the prime minister. It does not change anything but to be factually correct, it is to prime minister Inonu rather than Atatürk.

    Inonu’s hand writing “to the ministry of education” and his signature is clearly visible.

    • The letter was quiet generic, and landed on Prime Minister Inonu’s desk. He apparently made an annotation about how he did not see how Turkey could afford the higher salaries required for these scholars. It has been argued that Ataturk himself, got into the fray, and approved it himself. There is no evidence to that fact. At the Institute for Advanced Study during the years 1974-’81 I was quite close to Helen Dukas, Einstein’s loyal secretary/assistant of 28 years, who on several occasions actually brought mentioned, “Oh, yes! There was the letter Professor Einstein wrote to President Ataturk. You know, he admired him very much!” I will post a photo of Ms. Dukas sometime in a future blog. Thank you, Mr. Bull, for your comment.

  • Güney Doganer

    Thank you for writing this article mr. Atalay.
    I never knew about a link between Einstein and Atatürk before reading your article a few months back. I stumbled upon your article today again and I figured I’d leave a comment this time to show my appreciation.

  • Nur

    With all due respect for the Master Dentist (!)(reminds me of a Dustin Hoffman movie) beloved Atatürk allegedly had 17 teeth that needed filling when he departed..?!

  • Gireesh

    It is a great loss for Turkey…Einstein, the one-of-its-kind genius can contribute immensely for Turkey…Nice article…I have carried this story:
    and in

  • […] 1933, Albert Einstein (who seemed to be everywhere in those days, campaigning for Jewish safety) wrote a letter to Ataturk and his cabinet, asking for Jewish scientists and doctors to be allowed to continue their research […]

  • Nadir GÜNEY

    Dear Gentlemen,
    I appreciate you that very important information.
    I was schocked.Nobody knows to this story.
    As if Turkish goverment doesnt provide to learnability about Einstein’s regarding Atatürk.

  • Bob

    Yes Ataturk accepted the offer and at the end 130 Jewish academic people went to Turkey with their families. Some are directly from concentration camps. Those people helped establishment of modern Turkey. Please note that back then Turkey was a very prehistory land with no electricity, cars, industry of running water.

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