Changing Planet

Drip Irrigation Expanding Worldwide

A farmer in Nepal employs a low-cost drip system. Photo courtesy iDE

As the world population climbs and water stress spreads around the globe, finding ways of getting more crop per drop to meet our food needs is among the most urgent of challenges.

One answer to this call is drip irrigation, which delivers water directly to the roots of plants in just the right amounts. It can double or triple water productivity – boosting crop per drop – and it appears to be taking off worldwide.

Over the last twenty years, the area under drip and other “micro” irrigation methods has risen at least 6.4-fold, from 1.6 million hectares to more than 10.3 million.  (One hectare is about 2.5 acres. The latest figures from the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage include countries accounting for only three-quarters of the world’s irrigated area, so the 10.3 million figure is low.)

The most dramatic gains have occurred in China and India, the world’s top two irrigators, where the area under micro-irrigation expanded 88-fold and 111-fold, respectively, over the last two decades. India now leads the world, with nearly 2 million hectares (about 5 million acres) under micro-irrigation methods.

Amazingly, most farmers today still irrigate the way their predecessors did thousands of years ago — by flooding their fields or running water down furrows between their rows of crops. Often less than half the water applied to the field actually benefits a crop.

The rest isn’t necessarily wasted. Some of it makes its way back to a river or groundwater source where it can be used again.  But the excessive diversions can deplete rivers and streams, pollute water supplies with pesticides and salts, and result in large losses to evaporation.

Drip irrigation, commercialized by Israeli engineers in the 1950s, delivers water directly to crops’ roots through porous or perforated tubing installed on or below the soil surface.  Compared with conventional flood or furrow irrigation, drip methods can reduce the volume of water applied to fields by up to 70 percent, while increasing crop yields by 20-90 percent.

This month Dr. Daniel Hillel was named the 2012 World Food Prize Laureate for his pioneering research leading to the development of micro-irrigation methods.

Today, as throughout modern history, irrigation is crucial to the global food supply: the 18 percent of the world’s farmland that’s irrigated yields 40 percent of the world’s food.  Yet less than 4 percent of the world’s irrigated land is equipped with micro-irrigation systems. Clearly, the irrigation revolution has a long way to go.

To date, farmers have adopted micro-irrigation mainly for fruits, vegetables and other high-value crops that can provide a good return on the investment. California is the king of drip in the United States, in large part because it is the nation’s fruit and vegetable bowl. It accounts for 62 percent of the nation’s area under micro-irrigation; Florida and Texas come in a distant second and third.

But as rivers run dry, water tables drop, and cities look to farmers for additional supplies, the rationale for getting more crop per drop is mounting in more places and with more crop varieties.

Netafim, the global market leader in drip irrigation, has expanded drip’s use on cotton in Australia, Egypt, Israel, the United States and elsewhere. In the Philippines the installation of a subsurface drip system on a sugar cane farm resulted in a 90% increase in yield compared with a conventional (center-pivot) sprinkler, and a 70% reduction in water use– resulting in a dramatic increase in water productivity. Netafim reports that the cane’s sucrose content increased by 5%, an added bonus.

Anil Jain, the managing director of Jain Irrigation – the second biggest global micro-irrigation company – expects the drip irrigation market in his native India to expand by 1 million hectares (nearly 2.5 million acres) per year during the coming years and to soon become a $1 billion market in India alone. Between 2003 and 2010, Jain’s drip business grew 20-fold.

But what really caught my attention was Jain’s endeavor to expand drip irrigation to rice, a notoriously thirsty crop and the food staple for nearly half of humanity.  India alone has some 43 million hectares of rice under cultivation, so saving even 10 percent of the water now used to grow the crop could free up a great deal of water for other purposes and help slow the depletion of India’s aquifers.

Jain is collaborating with the International Rice Research Institute and other agricultural centers on research and field trials for drip-irrigated rice.

At its R&D farm in the state of Tamil Nadu, Jain has reportedly gotten some promising early results: drip-irrigated fields yielded 22 percent more rice per hectare and required only a third as much water.

For drip-irrigated rice to catch on commercially, however, Indian officials will need to reduce the heavy subsidies to water and energy, which discourage farmers from investing in more-efficient practices.

Over the last decade, low-cost drip systems tailored to the needs of poor farmers have begun to spread, as well. iDE (formerly International Development Enterprises), which successfully introduced the treadle pump to poor farmers in Bangladesh, has also pioneered the development of low-cost drip systems for poor farmers.

iDE’s suite of systems ranges from $5 bucket kits for home gardens to $25 drum kits for 100-square meter plots (about 400 plants) to $100 shiftable drip systems that can irrigate 0.2 hectares (half an acre), including plots on terraced hillsides.  More than 600,000 of iDE’s low-cost drip systems have been sold in India, Nepal, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

So will there be enough water to grow the food we need while still keeping our rivers and freshwater ecosystems healthy?

The answer depends in large part on whether farmers will find it profitable to invest in more efficient technologies.  Reducing water subsidies, for example, would help expand the drip market.

Drip irrigation is clearly on a roll, but its potential has barely been tapped.

Sandra Postel is director of the Global Water Policy Project and lead water expert for National Geographic’s Freshwater Initiative.  She is the author of several acclaimed books, including the award-winning Last Oasis, a Pew Scholar in Conservation and the Environment, and one of the “Scientific American 50.”

Sandra Postel is director of the Global Water Policy Project and author of Replenish: The Virtuous Cycle of Water and Prosperity. From 2009-2015, she served as Freshwater Fellow of the National Geographic Society. Sandra is also co-creator of Change the Course, the national water stewardship initiative awarded the 2017 US Water Prize for restoring billions of gallons of water to depleted rivers and wetlands. The recipient of several honorary degrees, she works to bridge science, policy, and practice to promote innovative ways of securing water to meet both human and ecosystem needs.
  • Sam A. Haidar

    This is a good article with good information in it. However, I would like to comment on two items. In the paragraph on Netafim, you mention a 90% increase in sugarcane yield and a 70% reduction in water use compared to a center pivot system; these numbers are correct when comparing with flood irrigated sugarcane, but not to center pivots. Users of our Lindsay Zimmatic systems are obtaining up to 180 Metric Tons/Hectare which is comparable to subsurface drip. Irrigation efficiency of modern pivots today have been measured at up to 96%, which is also in the same ball park as drip systems.

    Lindsay also has a working collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute with two of our center pivots being used for research. Rice trials in Arkansas and Australia, comparing pivot rice and paddy rice, produced close to 200 Bu/acre under the pivot with significant savings in water and energy. The results of the AR rice trial were presented at the ASABE conference 5-8 December 2010 in Phoenix, Paper No. IRR10-9851, by Dr. Earl Vories (USDA-ARS), with myself as one of the co-authors “Comparison of Flooded and Sprinkler Irrigated Rice Production”.
    Sam A. Haidar, V.P. International, Irrigation Scientist

  • […] National Geographic revealed that Dr. Daniel Hillel was named the 2012 World Food Prize Laureate. This simple innovation (although not new) allows farmers in arid areas to systematically and precisely monitor water usage. Most farmers or those who have been in the industry have an acute sense for weather patterns and climate trends. The option of monitor and regulate water flow to their crops will allow agricultural workers to sustain their small-meduim enterprises. […]

  • Umesh Lagad

    The article is very good and informative.
    But I would like to comment on two issues in Indian context.
    The predominant use of the drip irrigation system is for horticulture and vegetable, sugercane and cotton crops. And mostly by well off farmers.
    There is need for more and more initiatives in R & D to reduce the per hectare cost to be affordable to marginal farmer and use of drip irrigation for close growing crops like cereals, pulses etc.

  • USHE

    thank you very much for this very informative article. i however need to kno which companies in Zimbabwe have the said product. i happen to be an aspiring young farmer and stil am very enthusiastic about technologically advanced systems that in one way or the other relate to horticulture

  • […] Sandra Postel, who leads National Geographic’s Freshwater Initiative recently wrote a blog post for Water Currents about the promise of efficient drip irrigation systems. “As the world population climbs and water stress spreads around the globe, finding ways of […]


    Good article its fact now day has came to count every drop, in India i am distributor IN India one Of best company FINOLEX PLASSON located in pune we came across many of farmers now they are getting realized benefit of using drip irrigation

  • […] (12) When and where possible, buy grains, fruits and vegetables grown with water-friendly best practices, like drip and other “micro” irrigation methods. […]

  • Lawyer albuquerque

    Drip irrigation is a very effective way of irrigation as it not only saves water but also provides the right amount to the crops. There is no doubt on the fact that its popularity is growing worldwide.

  • […] (12) When and where possible, buy grains, fruits and vegetables grown with water-friendly best practices, like drip and other “micro” irrigation methods. […]

  • […] or furrow irrigation, while increasing crop yields by 20 to 90 percent.  Although the method has expanded rapidly in recent years, it still accounts for only about 3 percent of irrigated land in China and India, the world’s top […]

  • […] public and private investments in water conservation, efficiency, recycling and reuse; market shifts that result in greater value per gallon consumed; and consumer […]

  • […] start looking for innovative ways to grow more crops using less water for irrigation, for example drip-irrigation. Furthermore, we need to stop depleting water sources in countries that are clearly running low. […]

  • Sie.Kathieravealu

    Drip and sprinkler and other systems have to be made AFFORDABLE to the POOR farmers who need it most.
    There are many ways. Companies can cut down their PROFITS, Governments and other agencies can give subsidies to the manufacturers like Gujarat giving TATA subsidies without “strings” to produce their “nano cars”.

  • […] such as micro-irrigation (or drip irrigation) projects for growing crops are far more sustainable and ecologically sound, and have helped […]

  • […] greater water savings are possible in irrigated agriculture, simply because of the gigantic volumes of water used in growing crops.  While squeezing true […]

  • […] be rain fed, that don’t require irrigation, that’s great. If it requires adding water drip irrigation is far more efficient than flood […]

  • […] Understanding the importance of this irrigation method is crucial to Indian farmers. The ministry of agriculture in India needs to take steps in this direction to help the farmers who are feeling lost and are committing suicides at a startlingly high rate. Jain Irrigation Systems have proved to be expensive for the poor farmers in India since the government provides only 50% of the subsidy to buy the infrastructure required to set up the drip irrigation method. (Source The other half of the price is too much a burden on the India farmer’s pocket. The interesting thing about Jain Irrigation however, has been the implementation of the technique on rice. The drip method has been used worldwide on cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables. Jain System is trying to expand the usage to rice which constitutes the staple diet of more than half of the Indian population. By doing so, water that is saved can be put to use for other crops. (Source […]

  • azza zaghouani

    I am Azza Zaghouani , a farmer from Tunis.Please i need to buy a large quantity of HEAVYWALL DRIPLINE.Kindly answer

  • […] that can be rain fed, that don’t require irrigation, that’s great. If it requires adding water drip irrigation is far more efficient than flood […]

  • […] methods such as drip irrigation were used on 38 percent of California farmland, and California leads the U.S. in the use of low-volume methods. Drip irrigation delivers water directly to the roots of […]

  • Muhammad Saeed

    Is any one tell me the country wise irrigated area under HEIS (drip, sprinkler, center pivot etc.)?

    • Thank you for writing. I wouldn’t necessarily count center pivot as a highly efficient system unless it was a Low-Energy Precision Application sprinkler or something similar. About 4% or so of world irrigated area is under drip/microsprinkler; if we add in center pivots that number will go up considerably. Data on irrigation systems is maintained by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and so I would look at their data base for the latest numbers on the systems you’re interested in.

  • Rebecca Wright

    This is awesome! Drip irrigation is a very practical way to water the crops with the right amount of water without any wastage. Flowing irrigation has the tendency of wasting the water sources and it can sometimes pollute the running water which is located at the lower portion of the plants and crops. I recently had some problems with it and ended up getting some help with this matter from

  • […] save water during the drought, Ray began experimenting with drip irrigation, which delivers a precise amount of water to the crops instead of flooding the whole field.   […]

  • emmanuel

    how can i get an article of world population peercnatge of irrigated areas,percentage of drip, flood and sprinkler. If you have kindly send me.

  • The best source for global data on irrigation is the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Aquastat database. It is available online. — Sandra

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