Wildlife & Wild Places

Rediscovering Ross Island 2012: Erin, Dan and Paul Make Their First Helicopter Flight

Written by Paul Wallace.

Mt. Terror – it sounds like something out of the Lord of the Rings, and at 10,600 feet elevation, it’s an imposing site.  Based on very limited age information, this volcano was last active about 1 million years ago and its flanks are dotted with small cinder cones and lava domes.  Our goal in coming to the east ridge of Terror is to collect samples of lava and volcanic ash that will help us figure out whether an upwelling mantle plume creates the magma that feeds the Ross Island volcanoes, as Ken explained in the first post.

Plate 1: Our first landing, in the Kyle Hills on the east flank of Mt. Terror. Dan (red jacket) gets our field gear ready while Ken (blue and black coat) does a radio check with the pilots, who are standing behind Dan. Erin and Ken walked up to the cone seen behind the helicopter to collect samples. Photo by Paul Wallace.

We first landed at a spot low on the east ridge of Terror (Plate 1), not far from the famous Emperor Penguin colony at Cape Crozier that Apsley Cherry-Garrard walked to during the Austral winter of 1911 and which he chronicled in his book The Worst Journey in the World.  Fortunately the task of sampling volcanic rocks with a helicopter is infinitely easier and safer than retrieving penguin eggs and carrying them 60 miles through the dark, frigid Antarctic winter.  Today the sun is shining and there’s not much wind, so the conditions couldn’t be better for collecting samples.

Plate 2: A view from the helicopter of the volcanic cone that was our second stop, where Dan and Paul were dropped off. We found two different kinds of lava at this cone. The summit of Mt. Terror can be seen in the background. During the next week, we plan to land at and sample many of the cinder cones seen between the summit and us. Photo by Ken Sims.

After landing, we split into two groups, and Dan and I walk up to the rim of one cinder cone and down into the breached crater.  Soon he is calling to me that he’s found a great sample of black volcanic ash, with large crystals of greenish olivine, just the kind of material we’re looking for in our research.  Compared to field work in the Cascades in the northwestern U.S. and other places I’m accustomed to, the work here feels more clunky because of all the cold weather gear we’re wearing and carrying.  But we’re excited at the great exposures of volcanic material we’re finding.

Plate 3: Our second stop. Dan (lower right) sampling black scoria and ash from a cinder cone. More cinder cones can be seen in the distance, about 3000 feet below us in elevation, and sea ice stretches out all the way to the horizon. Photo by Paul Wallace.

At our second stop of the day (Plate 2), the helicopter leaves Dan and me along with a large survival bag of gear, and flies off with Ken and Erin so they can sample at another location. It’s an interesting feeling to be left in such a remote place, but we know they won’t be too far away and we’re in radio contact for safety purposes.  We find another great exposure of rock and ash, collect a few more samples (Plate 3), and soon we hike back up to meet the helicopter (Plate 4).  On our flight back to McMurdo Station, with the ice shelf and mountains stretching out to the horizon in all directions, it’s hard not to think again of the early explorers who came here, and the vastness and isolation of this region they trekked through.

Plate 4: Dan and Paul (in foreground) carrying their gear back to the helicopter after our final stop. Our heads are down because of the strong wind from the helicopter rotor, which was enough to blow a person over. The rocky nature of the landing site required the pilot, Ryan Skorecki, to keep the rotor spinning so as not to put the full weight of the helicopter down on the ground. Photo by Ken Sims.
A Professor at the University of Wyoming and a former tenured Research Scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Dr. Kenneth W.W. Sims uses isotopic and chemical tracers to study geologic processes in the earth and other planetary bodies. Ken has over fifty peer-reviewed scientific publications focusing on the study of mantle melting, oceanic and continental crustal genesis, volcanology, hydrology, planetary core-formation, climate change and oceanography. Dr. Sims earned his BA in Geology from Colorado College, his MSc from the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico; and his PhD in Geochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Ken’s field experience ranges from ocean floor geology, using submersibles and remote sensing techniques to geological studies of active volcanoes at high altitudes in technical terrain. Academic awards include: the Estwing Outstanding Senior Award at Colorado College, an Outstanding Student Instructor Award from the UC, Berkeley, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Postdoctoral Scholar Fellowship, three Mellon Awards for innovative exploratory research and the Kincaid School 2012 Papadopoulos Fellowship.In addition to his academic career, Ken is an avid climber and has been an alpine guide for over three decades with extensive experience in technical, high altitude and cold weather mountaineering in Antarctica, the Alaska Range, and the Andes of Peru. These technical climbing skills have enabled him to collect young lavas and gather volcanic gas data inside active, remote volcanoes across the globe, including Erebus Volcano in Antarctica; Masaya Volcano in Nicaragua; and Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo Volcanoes in DR Congo. Using isotopic and geochemical data measured in these hard-to-get-samples Professor Sims’ ultimate goal is to better understand the genesis and evolution of Earth’s volcanoes, with an eye toward predicting future eruptions.Sims’ research and scientific expeditions have been featured in National Geographic Magazine; Oceanus; Popular Mechanics; New Scientist; several children’s books and magazines; NHK Japanese Public Television (Miracle Continent Antarctica- Mt Erebus), National Geographic Television (Man versus Volcano); and, the Discovery Channel (Against the Elements). Professor Sims is a featured scientist on National Geographic Explorer Site http://www.nationalgeographic.com/explorers/bios/kenneth-sims/ For Professor Sims’ complete Curriculum Vitae, Publication List and Mountaineering Resume see http://geology.uwyo.edu/kenwwsims.

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