Human Journey

Uncovering the Origins of Ancient Egypt

The “Dialogue of Civilizations” conference in Guatemala brought together archaeologists studying five ancient cultures to discuss their similarities and differences and what they can tell us about human society as a whole. You can still be a part of the conversation, commenting on this post or tweeting using #5Civilizations.


Ancient Egypt has stood out even among the impressive remains of other ancient civilizations for three main reasons: the pyramids are enormous, the cultural style and imagery remained consistent for ages, and it is really, really old. In fact, the pyramids were roughly as old to ancient tourists from classical Greece as the ruins of Athens and Delphi are to us today.

One of the biggest questions surrounding ancient Egypt then is “where did it come from?” Last week at the Dialogue of Civilizations in Guatemala, National Geographic grantee Renée Friedman of the British Museum, and Ramadan Hussein, recent recipient of a Humboldt Research Fellowship at the University of Tuebingen, set out to answer that question.

The Catfish

Friedman began by showing the “Narmer Palette,” which dates from 3100 BC, and features a ruler, triumphant over his enemies, seen with the crowns of both Upper and Lower Egypt. He is identified by two animal images: a falcon, symbol of the leader of gods, Horus; and a catfish his own personal symbol, since the ancient Egyptian word for catfish was “nar.”

A lively reinterpretation of the scene on the Narmer Palette. (Painting by H. M. Herget/National Geographic Society)
A lively reinterpretation of the scene on the Narmer Palette. (Painting by H. M. Herget/National Geographic Society)


According to Friedman, the iconography of forceful leadership and control over chaos illustrate that already at this early date, the role of kingship in Egypt fit a pattern that would continue for the next 3,000 years. But this is still not the beginning.

Renée Friedman leads excavations at the oldest known city in Egypt, Hierakonpolis (“city of the falcons”) where the Narmer Palette was found. While earlier generations thought there must have been an external spark from Mesopotamia or elsewhere that triggered the rise of civilization in Egypt, she’s uncovering a very different tale. With activity at the site as early as 3700 BC, “there was momentum long before Narmer,” she says.

Of Beasts and Beer

Remarkably even the earliest stages of Hierakonpolis give clues to significant developments beforehand; it was clearly a planned settlement “from the outset” and it was the center of a cult dedicated to a falcon, either a predecessor to or the earliest example of the god Horus, shown for the subsequent millennia as a falcon himself, or a falcon-headed man.

Hierakonpolis contains many interesting sites and burials, but Friedman mentioned two in particular which shed light on what was capable and what was important at this earliest stage in Egypt’s history. The first has been called the “brewery”, and dates to about 3600 BC. While the vast quantities of beer production there are what catch most people’s attention, she said in truth, it was a site of much broader significance, processing any number of grain based foods. It remains unclear whether its products were used regularly by average people, or ceremonially among early Egyptian elites.

One purpose it may have had was to support the feeding of and ceremonial activity around Hierakonpolis’ most unexpected occupants: dozens of wild animals. “One fifth of the 3,500 animal bones are from wild animals,” Friedman reported. Crocodile, turtle, hippo, elephant… the list goes on. And the bones aren’t scattered in one heap of food remains, each animal was buried intact, the same as the many humans interred in the same area.

The wild animal bones at Hierakonpolis are buried individually almost the same as the humans at the same site.  (Image courtesy Renée Friedman)
The wild animal bones at Hierakonpolis are buried individually almost the same as the humans at the same site. (Image courtesy Renée Friedman)


Many of these animals were thought of as “agents of chaos” said Friedman, “that rulers and rituals were meant to control.” With one in six annual Nile floods being either too low or too high, you can understand the people’s hope for salvation from such chaos.

Not Just a Day at the Zoo

Numerous holes at the site indicate where posts would have been erected, to create rooms and temples from wood, cloth, and plaster, in this era a thousand years before the great pyramids, and two thousand before the Rameses’ famous stone temples and monuments.

Finely chipped animal effigies were found buried in the corners of the temple at Hierakonpolis. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)
Finely chipped animal effigies were found buried in the corners of the temple at Hierakonpolis. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)


In the corners of these temples, the team found delicately worked stone effigies of the same species of animals buried throughout the site. There is also a portrait in flint of a human of unusual but recognizable proportions: a dwarf. Remarkably, the remains of two dwarfs have been found at the site. At 30-40 years old, one is likely the oldest human in the entire cemetery.

Honored and beloved in ancient Egypt, dwarfs held various roles in society. This man may be the oldest in the entire cemetery. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)

In addition, dates of the actual bones all match nearly exactly. This wasn’t just some random zoo. This was a home for culturally significant wild animals many of whom appear to have been sacrificed at once, perhaps with humans as well, as part of a ritual display of power, or perhaps to accompany their owner, employer, or master to the afterlife when he met his own demise.

While the spectacle of these animals in life and death would have been quite a powerful illustration of the power of the leader, the associated costs may have been unsustainable. The amount of food required to feed these animals (including an elephant and a hippo, remember) was immense. “Huge amounts of ash” at the site indicate it was active and used extensively. It would have been enormously expensive. As Friedman put it, “This couldn’t last.”

A Picture’s Worth a Thousand Pounds of Hippo Feed

By 3400 BC, leaders had changed tactics. No longer housing and dispatching entire menageries to convey their command over chaos, they “switch back to imagery.” In painted tombs, the same symbolism continues in a much more manageable way for thousands of years. The biggest change? As climate and possible over use push elephants further away from the city, they disappear from the iconography, and the giant wild bovine known as the aurochs becomes the ultimate symbol of the ruler’s strength.

Images from a painted tomb illustrate the shift from live animals to painted ones to indicate a ruler's power. (Drawing courtesy Renée Friedman)
Images from a painted tomb illustrate the shift from live animals to painted ones to indicate a ruler’s power. (Drawing courtesy Renée Friedman)


Eventually Hierakonpolis would lose out to Abydos as the bigger city in the region, but Friedman says it would have its monuments restored, and the temple would hold artifacts of kingship which may even have been on view as a kind of ancient museum display. This looking back to the past was a key element of ancient Egyptian culture, and it may be what kept the expression of that culture so relatively consistent for more than three millennia.

“Egyptians liked to do things ‘as they were done the first time,’ “ said Friedman. “But when was that? Hierakonpolis helps us understand.”

The Beginning

Young Egyptian egyptologist Ramadan Hussein then presented on how he searches for the origins of Egyptian civilization not so just in buildings and bones, but in the extensive written record left by this early and highly literate civilization.

A gold-headed statue of the god Horus, symbol of Egyptian kingship. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)
A gold-headed statue of the god Horus, symbol of Egyptian kingship. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)

According to the ancient Greeks, he said, the ancient Egyptians said that Osiris, god of the dead, taught people the art of civilization and agriculture. He then gave a quick summary of Osiris’s story, roughly paraphrased here:

There were nine gods who created the universe. Osiris was a son of them. He had a sister Isis, and a brother Seth. Osiris was given control over Egypt. Seth, being the god of confusion and evil, grew jealous and killed his brother (again, according to the Greeks). Isis collected his body parts and resurrected her brother (imperfectly). They then had a son, Horus, the falcon god. Horus then followed his father’s footsteps and ruled over Egypt. But the story goes on. Seth wants Osiris’ old job. Seth and Horus contest each other. They go to the council of the gods and Horus is given the position to rule Egypt, and Osiris goes on to be god of the dead.

So that’s the ancient story of how Egypt got its start. The modern story follows the archaeological record, and in it, Hussein says, we see that there are early cities in Upper and Lower Egypt that were all in the process of developing into states.

“It took almost 1000 years to emerge as fully unified,” he says. The general process was that much like today, “people left small villages and moved to big industrial places with jobs.”

The most important of these early urban centers in Upper Egypt were Hierakonpolis in the south, Naqqada at the noticeable bend in the Nile, and Abydos just a bit further north than that. In Lower Egypt it was Maadi and Buto, both in the Nile’s famous delta.

Each of these cities had a good reason for being. Hierakonpolis was on a seasonal river bed and already was seen as a place for a ruler. Naqqada controlled trade routes. Abydos had big agricultural fields. Maadi had copper mines access. Buto controlled sea trade with the eastern Mediterranean.

An overlay of GCI posts fill the holes at the site and more clearly reveal the outlines of ancient structures.  (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)
An overlay of GCI posts fill the holes at the site and more clearly reveal the outlines of ancient structures. (Photo courtesy Renée Friedman)


The Scorpion King

The dynamics that led to these cities ultimately becoming part of one great Egyptian whole, as seen in the Narmer Palette, are what Ramadan Hussein was particularly interested in during this presentation. Those dynamics function on many levels, including the personal: there is one man who may have been the key to the bringing them all together.

In Hierakonpolis not only was the Narmer Pallete found, but so was the tomb of a man identified through hieroglyphic inscriptions as “King Scorpion.” In nearby rock art, he’s shown conquering another man, whose symbol appears to be that of Lower Egypt. In Naqqada, a ceremonial mace head with images of him were found. In graffiti near Naqqada, a king labeled “Scorpion” is seen defeating a bull-headed man, a symbol of the king of Naqqada. Back in King Scorpion’s tomb in Hierakonpolis, there was found a vase with similar bull symbolism.

All this points to the idea that before Narmer unified Egypt’s two kingdoms politically, Scorpion conquered the cities of Upper Egypt to create one of those kingdoms in the first place (watch a full NatGeo Channel documentary on “The Scorpion King” featring Renee Friedman).

The successive layers of construction of a building in Hierakonpolis.  (Drawing courtesy Renée Friedman)
The successive layers of construction of a building in Hierakonpolis. (Drawing courtesy Renée Friedman)


Scorpion may also have made the first forays into uniting with the north as well. While the south saw military conquest, Hussein says in the north change came through a cultural movement. Once completely different in terms of houses, pottery, and more, throughout the region of Maadi and Buto, there suddenly appears pottery mentioning King Scorpion. Even houses begin to be built in the southern style. There is, he said, “complete cultural takeover…[but] no evidence of battle like in the south.”

Given this presence of the name of Scorpion throughout the entire region, Ramadan Hussein thinks this early king, even before Narmer, may have had a hand in the union of the kingdoms. The Narmer Palette, he suggests, could just as easily represent a king putting down a rebellion as conquering a separate kingdom.


Lessons on Origins

In conclusion for the presentations on ancient Egypt, Ramadan Hussein and Renée Friedman took the stage to answer a few questions from the audience.

Asked about the mysteriously sudden inspiration and ability to construct the pyramids, Hussein gave a solid and practical answer. “As archaeologists, we’re not just looking at an object,” he said. “We’re looking at the process that creates that object… It took at least 900 years for [Egypt] to move to a state… Tombs started as shallow pits, then all of a sudden, they have a superstructure above that, then all of a sudden they have 6 [levels of structure], then they have 8… When you have [evidence of the entire] process leading up, you don’t have to wonder who made it.”

Renée Friedman then fielded a question about how well does the archaeological record correspond with details from Egypt’s extensive written records. Harking back to her translation of “hieroglyph” as “writing of the gods,” she said, “There is remarkably good correspondence. Since writing really was the ‘gods’ words,’ I don’t think they lied about it.”

The great lessons from this session then were clear: as unprecedented as ancient Egypt’s civilization was, there is an increasingly clear record of its development being unearthed at sites like Hierakonpolis; written and archaeological clues should be used together to reveal more about whatever either is hinting at; and more broadly, we need to look beyond just tombs and monuments to get the full story of the rise and fall of civilizations from the many groups they contain.


What do you think? Post your comments below and on Twitter at #5Civilizations.

NEXT: Read All Posts From “Dialogue of Civilizations”


Learn More

Guide to Hierakonpolis

Hierakonpolis Field Blogs


Andrew Howley is a longtime contributor to the National Geographic blog, with a particular focus on archaeology and paleoanthropology generally, and ancient rock art in particular. In 2018 he became Communications Director at Adventure Scientists, founded by Nat Geo Explorer Gregg Treinish. Over 11 years at the National Geographic Society, Andrew worked in various ways to share the stories of NG explorers and grantees online. He also produced the Home Page of for several years, and helped manage the Society's Facebook page during its breakout year of 2010. He studied Anthropology with a focus on Archaeology from the College of William & Mary in Virginia. He has covered expeditions with NG Explorers-in-Residence Mike Fay, Enric Sala, and Lee Berger. His personal interests include painting, running, and reading about history. You can follow him on Twitter @anderhowl and on Instagram @andrewjhowley.
  • Getreal

    LOL @ that “reinterpretation” thousands of years ago before any invasionsNarmer and his people were Africans native of the land that is today Sudan they were obviously Black.

  • Tristan Samuels

    I like the discussion overall. I have two major problems, however, with the way ancient Egypt is discussed here. There is very little discussion about Egypt’s connection to the rest of Africa (yes it is African). Also, I do not like how the reinterpretation of the Narmer Palette portrays the ancient Egyptians as tanned ‘white’ people which contradicts their self-representation, most Greco-Roman descriptions, and also the biological data (esp. the data gathered by bio anthropologist S.O.Y. Keita). The Egyptians were clearly a darker complexioned group of a people who would not be allowed to sit at the front of the bus in the 1950s US south.

  • lioness productions

    Nat Geo doesn’t have the more common darker reddish brown skin tone of the ancient Egyptians fairly depicted in their modern illustration at top “the scene on the Narmer Palette” by H. M. Herget. Look to the actual tomb paintings for reference

  • Ahmed Kamel

    Ancient Egyptians where white. For thousands of years Pharaohs where white with an exception of 5 who were Black. We are Africans, but Africa is a big continent that has Black and white, however it is stereotyped as Black!

  • Tristan Samuels


    You may be right, however, I think it was purposely done regardless of what Herget illustrated or what the tombs themselves show. There are numerous paintings where the Egyptians depict themselves in a dark reddish brown complexion which one of the many complexions that ‘black’ people (ex: African-Americans, Afro-Carribeans, Black Africans, etc) have. National Geographic still clings to the racist attitudes of the late 19th century with this ‘ten commandments’ style depiction of the Egyptian.

  • Tristan Samuels


    You may be right, however, I think it was purposely done regardless of what the tombs themselves show. There are numerous paintings where the Egyptians depict themselves in a dark reddish brown complexion which one of the many complexions that ‘black’ people (ex: African-Americans, Afro-Carribeans, Black Africans, etc) have. National Geographic still clings to the racist attitudes of the late 19th century with this ‘ten commandments’ style depiction of the Egyptian.

  • crackerhead

    what about the title ? did the people come from the green Sahara ? were they there all along ? evolving there ? strange they were not traced from another location much as native Americans .

  • Tristan Samuels

    Ahmed Kamel, you’re wrong. Africa was and still is a physically diverse continent. Ancient Egyptian diversity cannot be expressed in the modern racial terms ‘black’ and white, but ancient Egyptian diversity – if comparable to anything – it is comparable to diversity of those socially constructed as ‘black’. It is also evident that they were a dark complexioned people.

    crackerhead, some trace the ancient Egyptian origins to the starting point of the Nile (around Kenya) following the Egyptian records, some point to Upper Egyptian regions or around the Sudan. Overall, evidence suggests that Egyptian pharaonic culture was originated in the south – be it from Nubia or Upper Egypt.

  • Ahmed Kamel

    Tristan, I do not agree with you. Instead of “Black and White” I’d say and to be politically correct, “Caucasian and Negro” races. Egyptians were caucasian and they didn’t originate from southern Egypt at all, in fact their enemy was Nubia (Northern Sudan-Southern Egypt) and that’s why Ramses II had Abu Simbel temple there, to scare their armies when they were advancing on Egypt. Egyptians later on in History became a bit darker when they were occupied by the Arabs (who are darker) and married from them. When Egyptians went to Africa it was for 2 reasons, by boat to what is now Ethiopia/Somalia for trade or by land to conquer. Last but not least on a couple of times Egyptians too got conquered by the Nubians 🙂 !

  • Tristan Samuels

    terms like ‘caucasiod’ and ‘negroid’ are invalid when describing human physical features when we are diverse in phenotype. ex: many people who are considered ‘black’ do not fit ‘negroid’ type, but if you put them in an egyptian tomb they’re described as ‘caucasoid’. those racial definitions are not objective, they’re social constructs. There is no ‘black’ Africa, even the alleged term ‘sub-saharan’ Africa is NOT geographically consistent. Again, racial identification is a social reality, not a biological one.

    Also, being enemies with Nubia does not mean they are not biologically related, regardless of how each group percieved themselves. Again, socio-political difference can be constructed as a biological reality by both groups when, in fact, there is none. recent bio-anthropological studies show that the Egyptians and Nubians are biologically related.

    Humanity started in Africa, so Egyptian pharaonic culture had to evolve in Africa – as Egypt is African. There’s no reason why native Africans could not develop the fundamental aspects of pharaonic culture. Being in a hot tropical environment, they had to have been dark-complexioned people. Their self-rep and descriptions by Greco-Roman writers, as additional evidence, suggest that they were.

  • Henry

    @ Tristan Samuels _ I am going to dispute a few of your key assertions, firstly if you examine the Nekhen, tomb 100 wall paintings [ the oldest recorded to date in Egypt] you will only find one individual characterized with black and not copper skin tone. This figure is also distinguished by white body paint and one of the furthest from center and a hunter.

    #2 Egypt is in Africa but continents are a modern concept. You, much like our ancestors, can walk from the Kamchatka peninsula to Finnish Keralia and then to the cape of good hope without ever getting your feet wet. Is it then only sheer coincidence that Egypt arose at the North eastern tip of Africa adjacent to the land bridge between continents, and is such close proximity to neolithic Levantine cultures and Mesopotamia?

    #3 If you read S.O.Y. Keita’s “Early NV farmers from El-Badari” published in the Journal of Black Studies (2005) It is rather easy to pick out his very questionable use of Norwegians and Hungarians as his (Eurasian?) control group and then lumps in KhoiSanoid osteologically with Negroid. he uses questionable methodology to support a pre-determined answer, not scientific method to determine an unknown.

  • Tristan

    First, in regards to wall paintings, ‘black’ is not just one shade. I know people who define themselves as black and are a range of complexions. again, it’s more a social construct than anything. Egyptians, in non-religious or symbolic contexts, show themselves and even Nubians (i.e. Tomb of Huy) in a variety of complexions. This variety is closer to those socially defined (externally and internally) as ‘black’. the tomb paintings having one black individual and many copper complexioned individuals also cannot be an exact population count. For example: If i take a picture of all the NBA players and use it as evidence for the American population – I’d be grossly inaccurate. At best, it shows complexion variation within the community it depicts.

    Egypt obviously interacted with Levant and Mesopotamia, but that doesn’t mean it is fundamentally ‘African’. The flora and fauna and cultural practices reveal the African background of Egypt. Also, there’s no evidence that the essence of pharaonic culture came from the Near East as the Scorpion findings and even the Qustul incense burner in Nubia show. people in Egypt are on a continent of Africa and are African. Being geographically close to the Near East regions does not mean that ‘the roots’ of ancient Egypt had to from there. More succintly put, Ancient Egypt not a ‘Near Eastern’ civilization in ‘Africa’, rather, ancient Egypt was an ‘African’ civilization that had relations with the ‘Near East’.

    I have not read that specific article from S.O.Y Keita, but I think his approach (dismissing the true negro notion and ‘mixed’ everything) is probably the correct approach to understanding ancient Egyptian diversity. We cannot force data into Negroid and Caucasiod when those are social constructs. ex: many ‘sub-saharan’ Africans have so-called ‘caucasoid’ features if you were to look at their skeleton, but if they go missing in modern times: “black male missing”. Also, the Egyptian climate caters to a darker complexion that we seen in so-called ‘black’ populations today.

    It is rather evident that the reinterpretation of the Narmer palette done by Herget is flawed either way. There is no brown or black complexion being used…when the Egyptians were clearly not like the ancient ‘Greeks’. They did not define themselves as ‘white’ nor would they in a modern reality. Overall, the reinterpretation really reflects the racist mythology about the ancient Egyptian population.

  • Truth

    YOU have no idea do you? Ancient egypt is beyond your imagination. Don’t keep building up stories and feeding the public with your little brains, useless tools and assumptions, because Ancient egypt is beyond the mind, our current science or scientific tools. Humanity fell long ago into an apocalyptic era. After the fall, degeneration started to happen which took many thousands of years. You have no way to prove how old some of these places are, because you can’t carbon date structures. Anyways, I am really disgusted by organizations like National Geographic and the likes who have all the means to discover and showcase the truth, but are constantly being pushed around by the demands of the current degenerated society. Wake up please. We have lost our connection with our origin and keep making up stories with our minds. If you don’t see and understand the truth in your hear, then you can’t find it anywhere else.

  • William Reed

    I can recall reading old books where the so-called authorites on Ancient Egypt would state that the egyptians were a dark skin group of white people with negroid features, then others would state that they were a special race of red-skinned people. Absurdity, up to the point of even claiming extra- terrestrial contact for origin of this high level of civilization. Its really unfortunate that 39 years after the Cairo Conference for the Peopling of Egypt and the Merotic Script, that there is still psychological and emotional discomfort with the Black African origins and population of Ancient Egypt (Kemet) up until being invaded by the Assyrians (676 B.C.E.),Persians(525 B.C.E.),Greeks (332 B.C.E.),Romans (30 B.C.E.) Vandals (429 B.C.E.)and Arabs (651 B.C.E.). My suggestion to those with this discomfort would be to study the language that was spoken and also read the literature of what they had written.

  • Tristan

    Mr. Reed,

    You’re right – it is disturbing how racial bias still has a heavy impact on many Egyptologists. There’s plenty of images of dark complexion egyptians in art & they are biologically related to the nubians – who are universally accepted as “black”. Some egyptologists (ex: sally ann-ashton & stuart tyson smith), however, have gladly accepted the fact that the ancient egyptians of the pharaohnic period would be considered “black” in the context of modern racial perceptions.

  • Cain

    The picture in the article…of a euro Menes, killing an enemy of African descent is a joke..and stirs up rage…unquenchable Fury and leaves little room for sympathy as time moves forward… The Arab and euro slave trade was no accident…they knew full well who they agreed to track and continue chasing, seeking to exterminate… Those family who participated…”neighbors ” were foolish to believe that by betraying us they would gain the vacant seat…in the end they have also become victims.. However the fact matter how many discovery shows and missionary rescues…zoos or desiganted nature zones…Tarzan will never rule the Nile…neither will sinbad the sailor… Their will be no peace for the usurper…today’s chaos is a result of fragmented ideals and morals divided amongst a consortium of thieves…all who wish to be ” Adam”…. Kemet,kmt or similar to many things African…jazz, rap, swag, cosmology, religion, maat…rythm and a smile…We didnt label and sell it…put it in a sacred book to dam others…or use it to conquer the world…It has become plagerized and demonized … But soon.. As told in the book of job… The leviathan will be… Who can withstand sut… Who can understand wrath… All of nature is calling…crying out for our return…The universe is waiting…they watch in anticipation…what will become of the sons of the creator… Old will be new again…haha if kemet was European..or Arab…then y are they studying it… It would seem that they would have no need to study something they all ready know…only when u subdue a thing do u study and try and understand…. Silly rabbits…tricks are for kids..i suppose the creator truly wishes to see what his sons are made of…. From the highest position to the lowest slave…no memory, no language….no land…limbo…can u see toussant, Malcolm, martin,Lumumba…shaka…seqnere, ahmose and ramessu…imagine the lions and hunted beasts who will smile and rejoice…those who hung in trees…chased like dogs…thrown to sharks…sexually hunted…degraded,,, reshaped..even the diamonds call out…they serve as beckon…a mother tear…hatshepsut, harriet and countless others…we sought no land…and all historical evidence is ONE sided…how can evil tell history and then tell the side of those they have attempted to destroy…even asar in the heavens scoffs at this suggestion…But we will prove the creator true…even if we have to come back a million years…again and again….any man can be proud of a son when his sun has everything…but imagine…when he is cast down, slaved, raped and beaten…and the world is against him…if he rises again…against all odds…what a proud day…it’s in us…heru, sut, Montu..The greatest thing is tto rise and forgive…I guess that’s the last hurdle before we receive Devine help..cuz at this point I see sun red…and Hyksos will pay….may the creator cool the fire that burns…so much has been lost… It’s not about color…or race… It’s thieves and retribution…janjaweed and kkkk… Cecil Rhodes…and every tear and lonely heart…it’s for those chased by lions…planes and copters…every safari…there can never be a Ahknaton again….we will kill him….never again …may the sun move closer and FLARE..FlARE for your twins…ur brothers… Come close to us… Scorch the earth…she wishes it…. As for me…like the lizard…I will absorb it all…this was not our wish…but the rule of opposites had to be fulfilled…rubber balls, so called degrees can never placate the seed that’s planted by still waters….

  • Myra

    Humans did not originate only from Africa. DNA studies indicate that people are indeed diverse with origins from various places and at different times. The concept of one mitochondrial “eve” and one mitochondrial “adam” has no scientific basis, much like the mythological story book known as the “bible”. It is questionable anytime ethnic groups of people claim to be the chosen ones or constantly claim ownership of a heritage which is not theirs. Why not ask an Egyptian what they are? I know several; they claim to be EGYPTIAN and ARAB first and foremost. They don’t claim to be East, West, South, North or African-American….and by the way, most African-Americans were sold into slavery by their fellow Africans…so much for African unity and heritage. Let the Egyptians claim their own heritage. ..their pantheon of GODS & GODDESSES are similar to the Levantines and the Mesopotamians…so stop trying to blackface or whitewash their culture!

  • Ray ban

    Diodous Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3 “Egyptians have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair”.
    Professor A. J. Boyce. Oxford University “Ancient Egyptians greater similarity to Somalis, Kushites and Nubians,(anthropological), than any other group”
    HERODOTUS “black-skinned and have woolly hair,”
    Aristotle “black a hue marks //as witness Egyptians and Ethiopians ”
    That’s the end of the matter. It is nothing but astonishing that people seem to believe that at a time before planes trains and automobiles at place close to the equator in Africa was somehow white? In Africa? Does the Sphinx look like Brittany Spears? You couldn’t walk to media and Nubia was a black place and didn’t the black pharaohs of Nubia unite upper and lower Egypt ? The truth is black people were subjugated and it would not do to perpetuate slavery if black people were responsible for the kingdom of Egypt, that is the reason why the racism Persists despite the obvious environmental issues with the sun before planes trains and automobiles or any mass inward migration from Europe. Imagine Africans claiming that northern Europe was actually a black place 2000 years ago. Simply outlandish. Ancient Egypt was predominantly a black place for thousands of years it is in Africa not your ancient Egyptians are African and black.

  • james

    egypt is pro

  • bob

    cookie monster won’t share his cookies

  • smartie

    i dont like big words

  • smartie

    i love bob

  • james cilia

    hello big bird


    em htpu / whats wrong with this theory is that they are still skipping over the interior of south africa as the origins to / kmt / the customs and rituals and mdw ntr inscriptions imply an african origin pointing to the south /ta-khenti/ in sudan period there are facts that lead to africa as the source to the totems that was used such as the baboon mentioned in the [pert em hru ]

    lets take the baboon for example as being a representation of djuhuti/tehuti/thoth the /ntr/ of writing ,math ,wisdom this as a totem for tehuti/thoth makes perfect logical sense

    the Baboon possess great qualties and skills of survival outside the forest area ,also being that baboons lived on the ground made it easier to observe them ,the baboon also has writing skills or orthographic processing skills our ancestors observed the baboon to learn things as well as hunt and survive and food choices ,and the baboon was the suitable model for ground living hominids ,aside from man the baboon is the most successful ground primate ,the baboon way of life gave insight on the problems of early man ,thus the baboon and his bones was used in african spirituality / divination ,i see that the baboon could have been a logical totem for early african hunter/gatherers

    i give two key historical credible physical evidences of africans an baboon relations

    ishango baboon bone /20,000 b.c :
    found in 1960 by Belgian geologist Jean de Heinzelin
    source: [ actually wikipedia gives good references ]

    lebombo baboon bone /35,000 b.c :

    these baboon bones was used as either for calculations of the moon phases or ancient early african hominoid mathmatical devices

    this subject held my interest a minute ago ,what was interesting was when i researched this it lead me to a baboon bone archeologist call a measuring device found in africa dated 20,000 bc called the ishango bone ,evidence of baboon bones as measuring devices is found in other parts of africa ,this baboon bone was found on the border of congo and uganda ,the lebombo bone which is another baboon bone was found in south africa and swazi land at the lebombo mountains ,this is another connection of baboons and mathematics

    first you have to observe the totem and most of the totems lead back to the interior of africa ,yall problem is that yall are known racist ,kmt is in africa also the oldest humans also oldest genetics link back to africa ,do i have a challenge ? i will present evidence of the oldest homonoids existing in africa period if yall stop being racist and do what ea wallis budge said do yall wouldnt be so confused ,ea wallis budge stated that the religion of the egyptians was purely african ,so why dont yall study africa fools ,you national geographic people are clearly retarded ,all of the greek scholars mentioned the egyptians as africans

  • drifter

    The title of this article is extremely misleading, given the content of the article itself. Instead of, “Uncovering the Origins of Ancient Egypt”, it should be titled, “Covering Up the Origins of Ancient Kmt”. National Geographic is such garbage.

  • Freddie M

    There is dna and other physical proof that there were Russian blonds and red heads. Ramses had red hair and not from henna it was examined by the people who took his dna. he also had male pattern baldness that is common in European men only. His hair also had red roots inside of the grey. The process of mummification can not in any was bleach hair platinum or all mummies would be that way. All natural hair of mummies were silky straight or wavy like caucasian . There are quite a few mummies with light hair. They wore wigs of wool. They also took beautiful white captives and put them in harems or made them queens. At this same time there were also platinum blond Russian mummies in china so that is proof they were migrating long distances. No reason they did not go west like everyone else. Ancient egyptians migrated into Africa from the east to settle at the Nile. Also the egyptian woman are portrayed with white skin on the walls and tombs. Most looked like Kim kardashian, she is not black! But to say there were no red haired and blondes , Nordics, is just as ignorant as saying they were black. I’m sure someone slept with a Nubian like they did with usa slaves but it was not common. There is a wall tomb that a king wrote stating Nubians are dirt under his feet. Blacks are tribal and never built anything but huts at that time. They did not then or even now have the ability to make huge monuments. So to think that only one period of time the blacks suddenly became geniuses then never did it again is ubsurd. Egyptians were middle eastern Arab mixed with white but both are caucasoid.
    I’m an anthropology major specializing in dna and forensics.
    Also The Sudan pyramids were built almost 1000 years AFTER the last pyramid in egypt , the Nubians copied some of the egyptians clothing and small pyramids later on that were no where near as sophisticated as the real ones.

  • Johnny

    Let’s remember that not all Africa is black and Egyptians are Caucasoid.

    Despite it all, we should just admire the accomplishments of one of the great cradles of civilization as a human accomplishment and not as some sort of proof of one race being superior over another.

  • ABDU

    The ancient egyptians were clearly from africa if you read what they wrote they say the come from the south that would be the interior of Africa its clear as day they wrote it i dont know what the debate is all about stop being racist folks face it the arabs and the whites came way later even in the bible it says the egyptians were black like the Ethiopians and

  • Nobody

    Nothing, nothing and nothing

  • dave

    The FIRST picture above, titled as “a lively REINTERPRETATION of the Narmer Palette” shows LIGHTskinned people as the original Egyptians. We KNOW that the original Egyptians ORIGINATED SOUTH of Egypt… They couldn’t EVER have been white or even very light thousands of years ago. Matter of fact: white people weren’t even white six thousand years ago.

  • dave

    Dear Johnny: Ancient Egyptians were NEVER caucasoid. NEVER. You’ve been watching too many movies made in the 1950’s and 60’s… Back when many of us BELIEVED everything your people taught us in school, in church, in the movies, in college and on TV. Very few of us believe THAT stuff any more.

  • Vaachaspathy

    Further, we find no trace of blonde hair or blue/green/brown eyes on Egyptian paintings. So, they being of Caucusoid origin seems pure fiction inspired by the depictipn of Egypt in Hollywood movies. Even Jews were probably not white before moving to Europe because their Indian counterparts are not white right now.

  • Vaachaspathy

    I believe, going by the physical features depicted on the ancient Egyptian art, the ancient Egyptians constituted a separate race by themselves and can not be identified with either African blacks or European whites. They did not have ringged hair and big lips like the former and nor were they well built like the former. They mostly look lean in varied shades of brown complexion like the people of Eastern India.

  • Vaachaspathy

    I believe, going by the physical features depicted on the ancient Egyptian art, the ancient Egyptians constituted a separate race by themselves and can not be identified with either African blacks or European whites. They did not have ringged hair and big lips like the former and nor were they well built like the latter. They mostly look lean in varied shades of brown complexion like the people of Eastern India.

  • MLG_PRO_420


  • Zanzibar

    The evolution of African ancestry for the ancient Egyptian aligns with what we’ve found geneticly, culturally, mythological and so on. Their achievements are still largely unmatched in the ancient world as well as how much of our modern societies on a global scale adopted from them (knowingly or not). I do wonder if they would care about the question of race nearly as much as it seems to arise in forums like this.

  • Lola

    All my life, I was perfectly content with the knowledge that ancient Egyptians were beige Arabs. The propaganda to support this has been so cleverly crafted that I didn’t even have an inkling that the story of ancient Egypt might be anything other than that. But something I saw on the internet one day led me to take a closer look. Since then, I’ve been studying ancient Egypt. It’s been about 7 years now. I have seen the archeological, anthropological research, and DNA results from DNA Consultants, and DNA Tribes. I have read books from Gerald Massey, Dr. Cheik Anta Diop, John G. Jackson, Anthony T. Browder, Dr. Ben Jochanan. I have learned of their religious and cultural customs, and seen more artifacts than I can count.
    There is no doubt in my mind that the ancient Egyptians were a NEGRO civilization, as Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop once said. No doubt. What has become even more evident to me, through my research, is that there has been a very well-concerted effort to hide this. Not sure when/how it started, perhaps with the first Ottoman Turk rulers of Egypt (Zahi Hawass’s relatives) or perhaps with the first English explorers- I don’t know. But there is a very strong effort to conceal, obfuscate, and confuse the record regarding the origin of the people who populated and ruled Nile Valley civilization. It is staggering how many fraudulent artifacts are in circulation. All created under the labels of “restoration”, “replica”, and others. Artifacts that are blatanly altered and/or outright false. Reconstructions like the one vetted by NatGeo and Zahi Hawass of King Tutankhamun, that defy the very eyeballs!!
    Even still, there are some mind blowing artifacts that declare the origin of the ancient Egyptians with a resounding thunderclap. And more importantly, they reveal to the observer a story and a common thread of Egypt’s RULING CLASS. Most reliable writers, journalists, whatever, will tell you that a way to verify evidence/info is to analyze several versions, in this case, artifacts, and through matching/verifying arrive at an informed conclusion. After viewing the large stone artifacts done in true Egyptian style (conforming to their conventions) of Narmer, Huni, Djedefre, Djoser, Tiye, Khasekem, Khafre, Khufu, Ramses II and III, Amenhotep III, Mentuhotep II, Sitamun, Nefertiti, Nefertari, Tutankhamun, Thutmosis I and III, Imhotep, Sahure, the Sesostris/Senwosret kings, Amenemhat I and III, and many, many others, I am left with one impression: These people were NEGRO. Not Habesha Ethiopian, not even phenotypically “Caucasian”, but incontrovertibly NEGRO. I’m sure there have been skulls tested that were “Caucasian” in phenotype yet after viewing hundreds of African people from all countries and tribes (in subsaharan Africa and black natives of North Africa), and knowing a few personally, I have no doubt that those too were skulls of black African.
    Even in our global world, and even after colonization of the entire continent of Africa we still find mostly black Africans in the continent of Africa (excepting North Africa). Kenya, Burundi, Uganda, Rwanda, Congo, Angola, Sudan (excepting North where there is an agressive Arabization program), Swaziland, Namibia, South Africa, Mali, Gabon, Cameroon, and on and on. How much blacker, would the ancient Egyptian have then been, when most of the “nations”, the “peoples”, the “races”, we know today were still in non-existent or in flux and formation??? There was no such thing as an Arab when Egypt was established. Evidence shows that black Africans also inhabited parts of West Asia, most likely ALL of west asia, at that time and for some time after. The Turks and other central Asians who later significantly dilluted that region, and whose blood and culture is now a significant part of West Asia and the Arabian peninsula, were most likely nomadic tribes at that time and from some time after. The people of the middle East were not yet what they are today, a mixture of “races”.
    Napoleon, who was obssessed with Egypt, said this of Hispaniola’s blacks: My decision to destroy the authority of the blacks in Saint Dominque (Haiti) is not so much based on considerations of commerce and money, as on the need to block for ever the march of the blacks in the world.
    Is it possible that Napoleon knew something we didn’t??? That is the question.
    “The history of Africa will remain suspended in air and cannot be written correctly until African historians connect it with the history of Egypt.” -Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop

  • jay

    I find it quite interesting even with all our 21st century technology, these people still remain so mysterious. It is said the Mayan society died away, leaving a DNA trace that today is found in some people in Central America.
    We never have obtained such a trace for Egypt. We can dismiss the outrageous claims they were super human as they did leave behind mummies that have yielded human DNA

  • Mosab

    I really dont understand why this article skipped hundreds of research and studies that tells that ancient egyptians or pharonics were from land of punt or now modern somalia!!!.
    Its clear, and if you look deep in to the culture of somali and the langauage, there is many many resemblence.

  • Hamma Mirwaisi

    Egyptian Civilization vs. Caucasian Civilization

    By Hamma Mirwaisi

    Lord Krishna and his brother were forced out of today India by the army of Pandavas brothers after they lost in the Kurukshetra War to Kauravas. Lord Krishna and his brother led the survivors of defeated Kauravas side army and their people to settle in Egypt and Greek Island in year 3100 BCE or BC. In short Lord Krishna took over Egypt and his brother took over Greek Island. Lord Krishna build the first united Egyptian kingdom. The anomisity of Egypt and Greek toward Caucasian People (members of Mitra and Aryan religion) goes back to the conflict between Deva religion (worshiper of three human Gods of India) on one hand and on the other hand is the Mitra and Aryan religion (worshiper of only one God known as God HU). Aryan religion defeated Deva religion, but in last 2500 years the members of Deva religion as followers of God Shiva. Note Abrahamic religions are members of Deva religion but there are cover up, pretending to be worshiper of God HU.

    The Pharaoh of Egypt and Abraham, the forefather of Hebrew Jews, are the descendant of Lord Krishna and followers of God Shiva. This is the reason the people of the Christian countries are forced to study Egyptian Civilization instead of the Caucasian civilization

    The History of the Caucasian People: The Civilizations without Hatred and Racism

    First, Information to Remember

    If you are a member of the Caucasian People from countries controlled by “New Christian” religion, you should ask yourself who diverted you to study the Egyptian civilization instead of the Caucasian peoples’ Civilization. Note Roman Empire rulers and descendent of Trimurti Gods (Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) especially followers of Lord Shiva scholars changed Jesus of Nazareth’s “original Christian” religion to “New Christian” Religion to serve their interests only.

    If you are a member of the Caucasian people from countries controlled by “Islamic” Religion, you should ask yourself who gave your heritage to Persian of Tamil or so called Old Persian, who is not from Caucasian People by blood. Persian of Tamil betrayed the Caucasian people and joined descendent of Trimurti God leaders for the destruction and transformation of the Median Empire in the year 522 BC based on Lord Shiva teaching.

    If you are a member of the Caucasian People from countries controlled by “Deva” religions of India (worshipers of Trimurti Gods above), you should ask yourself how followers of the Devas’ and Asuras’ religion were able to destroy and transform the Mitra and Aryan religions in the world based on the Lord Shiva teaching.

    The Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations to arise independently around the year 3150 BC. But the Caucasian civilizations started around the year 10,000 BC.

    Why people in the US have been guided to study only Egyptian Civilization?

    What is Lord Krishna has to do with Egyptian pharaohs (human God)? Why did Abraham move to the area controlled by Egyptian Empire? Why did Israel move to Egypt? Why are Caucasian people children forced to study Egyptian Civilization instead of Caucasian Civilization?

    To answer these questions and a similar one, I took some time to study the movement of Lord Krishna and Abraham too.

    Lord Krishna involvement in the Kurukshetra War

    The Kurukshetra War, also called the Mahabharata War, is a war described in the Indian epic Mahabharata. The conflict arose from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas, and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura in an Indian kingdom called Kuru.

    Lord Krishna gives his army to Kauravas, and himself sided with the Pandavas. After the war was over everyone, want to kill Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna and his older brother Balarāma with their army of supporters moved to the Middle East. There are an indication that Lord Krishna built Temple in Jerusalem around year 3100 BC, which is the same time Egyptian got United under the rule of the pharaoh (human-like God). Is first pharaoh was Lord Krishna? It is possible. Abraham was descendant of Lord Krishna, he followed Lord Krishna’s footstep around the year 1900-1800 BC to reclaim the Temple of Jerusalem.

    The Pharaoh (human-like God) was the political and religious leader of the Egyptian people, holding the titles: ‘Lord of the Two Lands’ and ‘High Priest of Every Temple.’ As ‘Lord of the Two Lands’ the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt.

    The idea of human God started in today India by the followers of Arimanus known as Dêw (Devas) to corrupt Caucasian civilizations religious beliefs. The Caucasian civilizations have one invisible God known as God HU, and the Caucasian religion is known as Mitra (Mithraism) religion in that era.

    The Dêw (Devas) looks like human are the creators made by the Arimanus (Opponent of God HU) to fight God HU and God HU’s creators on Earth who are known as human.

    The Caucasian people under the leadership of Prophet Mahabad of Mitra (Mithraism) religions defeated Dêw (Devas) in today Iran 12,000 year ago. The Dêw (Devas) regrouped in today India and formed Deva religions. And then they are appointed Trimurti (three) Gods, human-like Gods, to lead the members of the Deva religions. The Trimurti (three) gods are known, as God Brahma (the source or creator), God Vishnu (the preserver or indwelling life), and God Shiva (the destroyer and transformer).

    The Idea of human looks like Gods is born in India to fight the Caucasian people as members of Mitra (Mithraism) and Aryan religions. God Shiva led the fight in year 10,000 BC, God Shiva’s followers including Lord Krishna and Abraham did continue with wars against the entire Caucasian people’s religion beliefs, which resulted to defeat the entire Caucasian people in India and the land from India to Europe and from Egypt to Mongolia. The followers of God Shiva are destroyed and transformer of the entire Caucasian people through Abrahamic (Judaism, New Christian, and Islamic) religious teaching. The process started in today India and finished in today of the Middle East is covered in detail in the following chapters in this book.

    The reference from the page 18 of the book by the historian of India Acharya Chatursen and its translation in English is as follows:

    Page 18

    There is no concrete evidence of Krishna’s presence amongst the royal dynasties of India. One finds no mention of Krishna in the Vrishni Dynasty even in the Puranas, the ancient scriptures. The only reference in the ancient history where Krishna finds a mention is about Kansa, wherein Krishna and Vasudeva are referred to as the relatives of Kansa.

    The Rig Veda also has three hymns (mantras) in which the war between Indra and Krishna is encapsulated in detail. This war also finds a mention in the holy Bhagwat. Krishna had formulated an expedition to abduct Parijat at Surpur. Indra, the lord of water, had ensured enough trouble for Krishna and his aides, which resulted in Krishna holding up the Govardhan Mountain to counter the same.

    Undoubtedly, this particular incident has reference to the Sindh River, because Indra had crossed the Sindh River to establish his control over the Panchnad Region, which lay beyond the said water body. All these details help us establish a fact very firmly that Krishna resided somewhere near Surpur in Iran. It was with Krishna’s assistance that Arjuna was able to set ablaze the Khandav Van (Nandan Van in Iran).

    The blaze at Khandav Van resulted in the destruction of the Nag (Snake) Dynasty, act, which was avenged by Takshak Nag by assassinating Parikshit while the Pandavas were exiled. This action infuriated Janmejaya so much that he organized a Nag Yagya at Takshila in which the Nags (snakes) were immolated alive. Twelve years after the assassination of Parikshit, his son Janamejaya, in the Sarp Satra (the Operation Snake) destroyed the sailors like Dhananjaya of Syria and wiped out the complete Satul Dynasty of Vasuki. These acts helped him establish himself as one of the greatest emperors of his times, of a region spanning across the islands of Jambu Dweep and Shak Dweep. In this mission, Janmeyaya was assisted by the descendants of Dadhichi, who are now the Pathans; and Indra. (Refer to Indra Puran, ch. 13)

    ‘The Khandav Van,’ or the ‘Nandan Van’ is commonly known as ‘Kavir,’ is situated in Iran, in the middle of Lavan Sagar and Ksheer Sagar. It is often referred to as the ‘Persian Salt Desert.’ (‘The Lut or Kavir, the desert of Persia. The etymology of the word Kavir is uncertain’ – H. P. vol. 1, 20). This Kavir region is also referred to as ‘Lut.’ The ancient history of Iran mentions the presence of the descendent of ‘AjDahak’ (Primeval Serpent), ‘Zohak,’ in Syria at that time. Zohak was the emperor of the region. (Zohak, a Syrian Prince. ‘Zohak, at whose hands he perished so miserably, and who conquered Persia is legendary, the name being a corruption of the primeval serpent, AjDahak as monster from whose shoulders hissing snakes grew.’)

    Nandav Van is now known as ‘Pardia Region.’ The inhabitants of the place are referred to as belonging to the ‘Dahe’ caste, and the country is known as ‘Dahsthan.’ It is to be noted that Nandan Van is the region, which is popularly known as the ‘Great Desert’ of Iran. In the Sarp Satra, the sailors had faced a crushing defeat. These sailors inhabited the areas of Sheshnag Country (Tocharitan), Hasan Adal (Alpatra), Ashwatar (Kabul), and Ilam (Elam).

    Lord Shiva and Lord Krishna

    Picture in the book


    Nandi, the Bull: Nandi is the Bull of Lord Shiva and is said to be his vehicle. The bull is a symbol both of power and ignorance, which suggests that Lord Shiva removed the ignorance of his devotees and gave them the power of wisdom. In Sanskrit a bull is called “Vrisha” which also means “righteousness.”

    Picture in the book

    Lord Shiva is one of the prominent gods for Hinduism, Judaism, and Islamic religion’. But Judaism and Islamic faith are not admitting to being worshiper of Lord Shiva. They are hiding behind God Yahweh and Allah while keeping their true belief from ordinary members. Prophet Muhammad worshiped God Shiva for forty years before establishing Islamic religion. And Judaism religion has Yeshiva University in New York, while the majority of students at the University are of the Jewish faith, many students, especially at School of Law and the School of Business, are not Jewish.

    The ‘Trimurti’ (holy trinity) of the Hindu pantheon, knows about the different symbols of Lord Shiva as symbolized by the various things associated with Him. Each of these signifies a different aspect of his Supreme Being. Read to know about them.

  • Vincent Ochen

    The Egyptologist who contributed so much to the identification of the earliest settlers in the Nile valley was the Frenchman, Abbe Emile Amelineau, As an archaeologist, he was also credited with the discovery of Osiris’ tomb at Abydos. It was Amelineau who identified the early settlers as the Anu people and wrote that in their migration down the Nile River, the Anu peoples founded cities such as Esneh, Erment, Quoch andHeliopolis, pointing out that those cities have the symbol which identifies the name Anu:
    Diop considerable research determined that it was the Anu people who authored the various books and scripts associated with Egyptian religion. The Anu people were also referred to as the ‘Agu’. According to Houston (1985), “This was the aboriginal race of Abyssinia. It was symbolized by the great Sphinx and the marvellous face of Cheops …. The ‘Agu’ of the monuments represented this aboriginal race. They were the ancestors of the Nubians, and were the ruling race of Egypt.”(Houston, 1985, p.35).
    Both Diop and Evan-Pritchard confirmed that the Luos were the very peoples who originally settled the Nile Valley and founded the ancient Kingdom of Koch (Cush, Kush, or Quoch). In the Luo language, i-means, thou and ‘tiyo’ is a verb to work or dedicate service to, pi- means, for. ‘Anu’ was the god of gods. Thus, itiyopianu means people who dedicated services to Anu. The Koch kingdom of the Itiyo-pi-anu expanded into Egypt, Arabia, Chaldea and the Aegian penisula (Drussila D.Houston, 1985).

    The ancient Nile Valley seats of government of Thebbes and temples at Karnak and Luxor still bear Luo names. The word Thebbe (Tebbe) is Acholi for seat of government. Karnak is similiar to the Luo word Ka-naka which means, ‘the place of the everlasting’. Luxor on the other hand is like the Luo word Lu-kwor meaning, ‘the living’. As lower Egypt increasingly came under foreign domination, the people of Lukwor (Luxor) retreated to Te-Kidi, the grand capital of the Kush kingdom.

    From Napata, the people of Koch migrated and settled in Arabia, Mesopotamia and Phoenicia. The ancient Greek historian Herodutus also noted that:

    “It is undoubtedly a fact that the Colchians are of Egyptian descent. I noticed this myself before I heard anyone mention it.”

    (Herodotus, The Histories).

    Herodutus noted that Colchis, a land located along the western slope of the Caucasus Mountains in close proximity to the Black Sea, as an African colony. He not only pointed to the Colchians black skin and woolly hair, but also to their oral traditions, language, methods of weaving, and practice of circumcision. Church father Jerome, writing during the fourth century, called Colchis the “Second Ethiopia.”

    The Phoenicians were a seafaring branch of the Canaanites, who, according to the Bible were the brothers of Kush (Ethiopia) and Mizraim (Kemetic Egypt) both members of the Hamite line. In other words, the Bible states that the ancient Canaanites, Ethiopians and Egyptians were all African nations. Dr. Diop claimed that Phoenician history is therefore incomprehensible only if we ignore the Biblical data, according to which the Phoenicians, in other words, the Canaanites, were originally Negroes, already civilized, with whom nomadic, uncultured white tribes later mixed.”

    Diop as well as many others realized that the economic relations shared by the Kamites and Phoenicians/Canaanites should not be marginalized. There was frequently a Kamite (Egyptian) presence: military, diplomatic, religious or commercial, both in Canaan and the Phoenician city-states themselves. The Phoenicians were the great merchant seafarers and dominated the Mediterranean shipping lanes. Phoenician inscriptions have been found as far north as central Turkey and as far west as Tunisia where the famous ancient city of Carthage was founded.

  • Gerald

    please before you post any lies look at one the paintings in Egypt, how Ramses got rid of caucasians in Libya. You can clearly see a black Pharaoh chasing white people. We all know Europe was a land of darkness (explaining their pale skin) a land of barbarians only civilise after the Roman conquest. The truth is many white people will never come to terms with the fact that Egypt was ruled by Negroids just like what they say about the Great Zimbabwe ruins, though they are in Zimbabwe and there is evidence that it was once home to an African culture they believe it was built by aliens.

  • Inigo Mulaisho

    See for yourself; Google or Bing the founding Pharaohs of Egypt, take a look at the Sphinx the Narmer bust and ask yourself; do these guys look anything European? The founding Pharaohs, the Corner stones of Ancient Egypt are as follows;
    Narmer, Huni, Djedefre, Djoser, Tiye, Khasekem, Khafre, Khufu, Ramses II and III, Amenhotep III, Mentuhotep II, Sitamun, Nefertiti, Nefertari, Tutankhamun, Thutmosis I and III, Imhotep, Sahure, the Sesostris/Senwosret kings, Amenemhat I and III, Tiye……………

  • Bantu

    When one looks at People from Somália, Kenya, Ruanda, and some nomadic tribos in África especially cattle herders from east África and sudan they facial features clearly look like does of People from ancient egypt…. I was watching a documentary abouth the himbas from Angola and Namíbia and i learn that they came from de great lake region people move freely across África the idea that the Sahara was a natural barrier i real dont believe it ….

  • otieno

    Since the Ancient Egyptians considered Kenya and Uganda to be where they came from, I am proud of our Ancient Egyptian heritage. I thank UNESCO for recognizing that in 1974. I believe we have so much more of our history buried underground, here in East Africa, but we must train our own and not allow foreigners to dig up our own history.

  • otieno

    It is so typical and obvious that the race that has been attackingthe black race, is the one trying to deny black history. This paracitic european behavior needs to stop. Everyone is now trying to claim Egypt as theirs.Proving that non-blacks are unoriginal and have to copy, everyone always wants to copy from the black race. Makes me proud, we are authentic and original.

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