Time for Honduras to End Scuba Diving for Lobster

A recreational diver inspects a spiny lobster off Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. In Central America, divers collect lobsters for a living. Photo: Lois Booth, My Shot

Statistically, fishing is one of the world’s most dangerous professions and it is hard to imagine what could be worse than scuba diving for lobster along the remote and impoverished Miskito Coast of Honduras and Nicaragua (see Building a Sustainable Lobster Fishery Off Honduras).

The dangers of this profession have been graphically documented by NBC News and the New York Times.  According to Smithsonian marine biologist Stephen Box, who has been working with the Miskito community, there are about 3,500 people who depend on the lobster fishery for their livelihoods, of which it is estimated that 1,300 are divers.  Box, a National Geographic Ocean Fund Grantee, estimates that scuba diving for lobster results in about 120 cases of decompression sickness per year, of which around 20 are fatal.

In 2009, as part of a Central American wide agreement, governments acknowledged the human and environmental damage resulting from this fishery and committed to ban scuba diving for lobster by 2011. That was later extended to July 1, 2013 to allow Honduras and Nicaragua, the last two countries still using scuba diving in that capacity, more time to transition the fishing communities to better practices and alternative livelihoods.

Unfortunately, last month, in spite of having already developed a national transition plan, the Nicaraguan legislature voted to override the regional agreement and extend scuba diving for lobster for three more years.  During this time they could continue to transition away from diving to other fishing practices and alternative livelihoods, but skeptics fear there is now a track record of postponement and in the meantime the divers will keep getting “bent,” paralyzed and die as they try to survive in the poorest and most forgotten part of Central America.

Now all eyes have turned to the government of Honduras.

With Nicaragua having backtracked, there is pressure from some of the Honduran boat owners to keep kicking the can down the road and similarly renege on the national and international commitment to ban scuba diving for lobster.  About 35 large dive boats remain in operation, each employing dozens of divers.  With overcapacity in the dive fleet and declines in lobster landings, many of these boat owners are in debt.  Understandably perhaps, some prefer to stick with what they know despite diminishing returns, rather than face the uncertainty of a transition.

But discussions are underway with the Central American Economic Integration Bank and their new Markets for Biodiversity project to provide a solution that can help finance the transition of these boats to alternative fisheries, and possibly alleviate some of their debt.  Ultimately the closure can provide a real opportunity to restructure parts of the Honduran fishing sector to improve both its sustainability and profitability.

And in the communities of the Moskitia, viable solutions are also emerging.  Local leaders and fishing groups have been developing innovative plans for locally managed lobster fisheries, which could easily supply to the same international market for lobster. The idea is to increase the financial returns to local communities and thus provide the economic incentive for socially and ecologically sustainable practices.

International attention on this issue is growing.  Darden Restaurants, the owners of Red Lobster and many other seafood focused restaurants, buys around 40% of the lobsters exported from Honduras.  They recently wrote a strongly worded letter to the President asking him to complete Honduras’s commitment to put an end to scuba diving for lobster.  In fact, since 2009, Darden has been partnering with USAID and local NGOs to try to help put an end to scuba diving by supporting efforts to develop alternative incomes for the Miskito communities as well as the transition plan to safer and more sustainable fishing techniques.

The government of Honduras has taken all the right steps so far. Most importantly, they have demonstrated a sophisticated understanding that the lobster scuba fishery is not just a fisheries problem. It is also a social justice issue, a public health issue, and an economic development opportunity.  So the government has been involving not just the Ministry of Agriculture but also other key government agencies in developing their national position and transition strategy.

Supporters from many sectors, including a major international buyer, government aid agencies, multilateral banks, and NGOs, are ready to help build a path to sustainable lobster fishing and a better life for fishermen and their families in the Honduran Moskitia. With the clear and decisive leadership from the highest levels of government, Honduras, unlike Nicaragua, can turn the corner and move away from its lobster diving past, towards a new future of sustainable fisheries with healthier and more prosperous coastal communities.

Los Guardianes de los Arrecifes – Pesqueŕias sostenibles en la moskitia (English Subtitles) from iLCP on Vimeo.

Miguel Angel Jorge is the Managing Director of 50in10, working to expand the organization's network of stakeholders, facilitate knowledge sharing about sustainable fisheries management, and help design and support collaborative fishery restoration programs implemented by the organization's partners around the world. Before joining 50in10, Miguel was Director of the National Geographic Society’s Ocean Initiative, which strives to restore the ocean’s health and productivity. He joined NGS in February of 2010. Previously Miguel worked as Director of WWF-International’s Marine Program, where he oversaw the their global strategies on fisheries and seafood, shipping and high-seas conservation policy. Before that Miguel worked extensively in Latin America and the Caribbean on marine, freshwater conservation and large-scale conservation planning processes, in the Gulf of California, Galapagos and Mesoamerican Reef. In his early career, Miguel worked in a wide array of areas, from aquaculture to refugee camp conflict mediator, to delegate at UN meetings. A native of Cuba, he has also lived in the US, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic and Switzerland. Miguel has a Masters in Marine Policy and a Bachelor’s in Aquatic Biology.
  • Joshua Wolff

    Great article, thanks for posting! We just launched our feature film which deals with this very issue in Nicaragua. We would love for you to check it out when you get the chance:


    All the best,

  • Eric Douglas


    You missed another article from Newswatch from 2010 on this issue. http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2010/09/27/miskito_divers_risk_death/

    I was quoted in that article, as well as the NYT and NBC stories you mentioned. I am thrilled NGS is continuing to focus on this ongoing problem. As a diving safety expert, if there is anything I can do to assist this effort, please don’t hesitate to ask. I also have underwater images with Moskito divers harvesting lobster.


    Eric Douglas

  • Eric Douglas

    Unfortunately, I heard from Dr. Elmer Mejia last week that Honduras has indeed decided to extend lobster fishing on compressed air for two more years.

  • Steve Foster

    Eric, I have been working a different angle–carrying, delivering and assisting with deliveries of wheelchairs, canes, crutches and walkers for the injured divers/Buzos lisiados. Had a unique community oriented view and have worked in the Honduran side of the Moskitia since Hurrican Mitch. Unfortunately the carnage/human toll will continue–Money truiumphs.

  • Herb A. Speegle

    Our company is currently looking to donate a hyperbaric chamber to the Moskito people, more specifically, to the Clinica Evangelica Morava in Ahaus, Honduras. The chamber is used, but in great shape! It’s current value as is would be approx. $150,000. However, we are trying to raise the funds to refurbish, transport, placement and training at the clinic in Ahaus. We know that we cannot dictate what’s going on in Honduras with the Moskito people, but we can at least make an effort to treat and educate them.
    If anyone has any helpful information that we can use to aid us in our quest, it would be greatly appreciated. We are reaching out to anyone and everyone we can think of.

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