Wildlife & Wild Places

The Bottom Line: Some Promising News for Bluefin Tuna

U.S. policymakers know they need to limit the number of Atlantic bluefin tuna caught and killed by surface longlines, which can stretch 40 miles with more than 750 baited hooks and float unattended for up to 18 hours. After all, the western Atlantic bluefin population is down 64 percent from its level in the 1970s, according to international scientists, due in part to this indiscriminate fishing gear. Yet an effective, comprehensive solution to this problem remains elusive.

On August 21, however, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, issued a proposed rule that could help protect depleted Atlantic bluefin from surface longlines. These regulations would be a step in the right direction, but we need more changes to effectively safeguard one of the most remarkable, yet depleted, fish in the sea.

Commercial fishermen use surface longlines primarily to target swordfish and yellowfin tuna, but too often they catch bluefin tuna instead. So for western Atlantic bluefin, which use the Gulf of Mexico’s waters as their only known spawning grounds, surface longlines are a serious problem. NOAA’s proposed rule contains several changes to improve the management of Atlantic bluefin in the Gulf and Atlantic Ocean, with a focus on limiting the number of bluefin killed by the U.S. surface longline fleet. This includes provisions to:

  • Establish a gear restriction area in the Gulf of Mexico for April and May where surface longlines would be prohibited, but highly selective alternative gears, such as green sticks and buoy gear, would be allowed.
  • Establish another gear restriction area off Cape Hatteras, NC, from December through April that would be accessible only to fishermen using highly targeted alternative methods—or to operators of surface longline vessels that had demonstrated they could fish with minimal bluefin catch.
  • Implement a new enforceable annual cap on the amount of bluefin caught on surface longlines in the Atlantic and Gulf, and establish a new individual bluefin quota allocation system, which would promote accountability.
  • Add a requirement that all fishermen using longline vessels install and maintain video cameras and data recorders, report to the agency daily to better account for their catch, and record information on gear deployment and retrieval.

Several aspects of this proposed rule are promising for bluefin conservation. Under the new annual cap system, for example, once longline users exhausted their quota they would have to stop fishing unless they were able to purchase some of the quota belonging to another vessel operator. That would introduce a level of accountability for fishermen using surface longlines that has never existed—creating a real economic disincentive to catch bluefin with this gear.

Every Picture Counts -- Send a photo comment to NOAA on bluefin management by clicking here

Yet there are a number of places where the proposed rule should be stronger. While NOAA is proposing restrictions on the use of surface longline fishing in a portion of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, that provision is insufficient. To fully protect bluefin, the area should encompass the entire Gulf of Mexico, so that it includes all known important breeding grounds, and the entire peak spawning season, March through May.

Also problematic is a provision that would take away a set amount of the bluefin quota from fishermen using targeted methods and give it to the surface longline fleet. This would be a major step backward in the protection of Atlantic bluefin tuna and the goal of promoting sustainable fishing. As drafted, this quota reallocation would seriously undercut current efforts to promote the use of new, more selective fishing gear technologies to catch swordfish and yellowfin tuna—many of which have been developed cooperatively by scientists and enterprising fishermen in the Gulf.

From my days working at NOAA, I know how hard it is to strike the right balance in a proposed rule. But taking quota from other fishing sectors and giving it to vessel operators using wasteful surface longlines would be neither fair nor balanced. NOAA’s leadership must not let that provision move forward.

Send a comment to NOAA about the draft bluefin rule.

Lee Crockett joined The Pew Charitable Trusts in June 2007 as director of Federal Fisheries Policy. As Ddirector, U.S. Oceans, he led Pew’s efforts to establish policies to end overfishing and promote ecosystem-based fisheries management in the United States under the authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the federal law that governs ocean fish management. As director, Crockett oversees all of Pew’s U.S. fisheries campaigns. These include efforts in the Northeast, South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, U.S. Caribbean, and the Pacific. Before joining Pew, Crockett was executive director of the Marine Fish Conservation Network, the largest national coalition dedicated exclusively to promoting the sustainable management of ocean fish. Under his leadership, the campaign helped efforts to reauthorize and strengthen the MSA. Previously, he was a fishery biologist with the National Marine Fisheries Service, leading agency efforts to protect essential fish habitat. He also served as a staff member of the House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, working on a variety of fisheries, environmental and boating safety issues. Crockett holds a bachelor’s degree in biology and a master’s degree in biological oceanography from the University of Connecticut. Before college, he served in the U.S. Coast Guard. He’s also an avid angler who enjoys fishing the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay.

  • Ralph Pratt

    Not only are they taking quota up front in the re-allocation scheme, NOAA is proposing to move Bluefin quota to the January time frame so that historic PLL discarders will be rewarded. This transfer comes from hand gear fishermen in New England that have fished sustainably for over 50 years.

  • Ralph Pratt

    Not only are they taking quota up front in the re-allocation scheme, NOAA is proposing to move Bluefin quota to the January time frame so that historic PLL discarders will be rewarded. This transfer comes from hand gear fishermen in New England that have fished sustainably for over 50 years.

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