Ask Your Weird Animal Questions: Reptiles

The western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta bellii) is native to North America. Photograph by Christian Hütter, imageBROKER/Alamy

Reptiles may not be as cuddly as cats or as dutiful as dogs, but reptile people love their lizards, snakes, and turtles. This week Ask Your Weird Animal Questions slithers into the world of reptiles, starting with one reader who shelled out some great questions about turtles.

Water turtles/terrapins: When they sleep at night, how is it that they do not drown or asphyxiate themselves? In cold climates when they hibernate, how and why do they not run out of oxygen when their pond freezes over for months at a time? Do they have the ability to become frozen solid but come back to life when they thaw out? — Dave Partington via Facebook

Turtles don’t drown in their sleep because their metabolism is much slower than our own, says Jeffrey Lovich, a conservation ecologist at the U.S. Geological Survey who has studied turtles for 30 years and probably loves them even more than other turtles do.

“They don’t have to breathe as often as us. It’s just life in slow motion,” Lovich says.

Metabolism is the set of chemical processes by which an organism functions. Turtle metabolism is influenced by temperature. “A turtle can stay submerged in cold water longer than it can in warm water,” Lovich says.

A turtle sleeping in a river in Florida might stick its head up periodically to get a breath. Turtles hibernating under ice in Michigan or Minnesota, on the other hand, can lower their already slow metabolism to deal with the absence of atmospheric oxygen. They “absorb oxygen from the water,” says Lovich. “Membranes in their mouth or cloaca, the latter of which is the reptiles’ excretory canal, allow aquatic gas exchange to occur under the right conditions, much like gills of a fish.” Also, turtles who hibernate in mud at the bottom of ponds where there is no oxygen can switch to an anaerobic metabolism to survive.

You are now prepared to thrill every kid you meet with the knowledge that some turtles can breathe through their butts.

As for freezing, “if you freeze a turtle as solid as an ice cube in a drink, it isn’t going to recover,” says Lovich. “Turtles can survive partial freezing, but not for long.” Fish and turtles contain a biologically produced chemical that lowers their freezing point. They can become colder than frozen water without actually being frozen.

A 59-author study of the western painted turtle published in Genome Biology in 2013 found that its ability to go without breathing for extended periods and survive partial freezing “appears to be associated with common vertebrate gene networks.”

Adaptations such as slow metabolisms and short-term cold tolerance must have “worked quite well for [turtles] because they’ve survived for 220 million years,” Lovich notes.

Maybe slow and steady does win the race.

My 7-year-old niece, Savannah Sisk, would like to know: Do larger snakes eat smaller snakes? Doug Rhodehamel via Facebook

They do, indeed. This Nat Geo WILD video shows a much larger southern file snake eating a smaller green water snake. In this video, “King Cobra vs. Olive Water Snake,” you can see that they don’t seem to need to be that much bigger. HowStuffWorks reports that king snakes will munch on rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads, all venomous snakes to which the king is immune. (Related: “Flesh-Eaters: 5 Cannibalistic Animals.”)

A photo of a Cuban Brown Anole
A Cuban brown anole (Anolis sagrei) with an unusual orange tone was found in Orlando, Florida. Photograph by Liz Langley

What’s this weird thing in my friend’s yard? — Liz Langley

Last week we instituted a new feature we’re calling “What’s in your yard?” when a reader asked us to help ID a peculiar little spider he’d photographed. This week I took the author’s prerogative and sent a photo of an orange anole to Kenneth Krysko, senior biologist at the Florida Museum of Natural History because, well, it’s weird.

Anoles are common in Florida, but usually they’re seen only in green or brown. I wondered if an orange one popping up might be a new species.

Alas, no. “This is a Cuban brown anole, Anolis sagrei,” one seen a lot in Florida, Krysko said via email. It’s a very variable species, Krysko says. “Orange individuals like this pop up every now and then.”

Alas. We’d hoped for an Anolis Weird Animal Question.

Got a question about the weird and wild animal world? Tweet me or leave me a note on Facebook.

Liz Langley is the award-winning author of Crazy Little Thing: Why Love and Sex Drive Us Mad and has written for many publications including Salon, Details and the Huffington Post. Follow her on Twitter @LizLangley and at www.lizlangley.com
  • Tristan

    I have a weird animal question:

    Why does the gavial have such a narrow snout?

    Follow up question: Do they have snout envy issues?

  • scott

    I have a few northern green frogs. One just became swollen and is floating but is very much alive. Is he sick? And if so what can I do?

  • Liz Langley


    Below is a link to an amphibian care page by conservationist Devin Edmonds who has written several books on the subject – his page says bloating could be due to infection, ingestion of solid materials or liquid which could mean a water quality issue and to consult a vet. Also below is a link for the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians which should help in finding a vet in your area. Good luck!



  • rena

    my yellow bellied turtle that i have had for 13 years usually stays outta her tank in winter months and runs around the house, well this year we have moved and how home doesnt have underpinning yet she burried herself in my closet and froze stiff as could be last night i warmed her with a towel and put her in water today for a while i dont see any sighs of life in her yet.. im probly not going to am i ? she is a special needs turtle with a crooked shell and i love her soo

  • Liz Langley

    @rena I’m very sorry to hear about your turtle – I spoke to Jeffrey Lovich, who I referred to in this piece and he said it’s very unlikely for a turtle to survive freezing like that. Again, I’m sorry, it sounds like she was a great pet.

  • Kendall Rogers

    can gray tree frogs and red eyed tree frogs live together

  • Isaacthurmond

    Can golden geckos live with chubby frogs? If not whet frogs can they live with?

  • Elise

    Can green anoles survive outside in 44 dergee weather. Would it cause cold stun?

  • Kolbi

    Any information on what to do when your fire skink loses a small part of her tail?

  • Maryann

    I live in NC and we have a pond behind our home with turtles and other species in it. We have had very cold temps lately and the pond has frozen, I don’t know to what depth? It did thaw and then re-freeze and stayed that way for a 2 days, the sun was out yesterday and a lot of turtles poked their heads out of the water but only a few went back down before nightfall and I woke up to most of the same turtle’s heads still sticking out of the water, it was 15 degrees last night. Are they still alive?

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