Changing Planet

A Woman and Her Dogs

Jane Horgan of Cheetah Conservation Botswana. Photo Rudi van Aarde

The Kalahari — the word means “waterless” — stretches across the area equal to that spanned by the eight US states that stretch from Idaho and Montana, southwards to Arizona and New Mexico. Our winter journey across the monotonous dry savannah of yellow grass and green acacia trees takes days. For our second visit to National Geographic Big Cats Initiative grantees, Rudi van Aarde and I are heading to Cheetah Conservation Botswana, in Ghanzi, close to Botswana’s western border with Namibia. (The first instalment was B is for boma, K for kraal.)

Same grass, same acacia trees, hour after hour. Same donkeys — Botswana has huge numbers of them. Same road verges neatly trimmed well back from the road to discourage large mammals from feeding there and colliding with trucks and cars.

Well back from the road are fences. They are not all the same! Some are simple strands of barbed wire that keep in cattle or goats. Others are higher and more substantial. They keep in game — gemsbok, springbok, kudu and other species that are farmed either for their meat, for hunters to shoot, or tourists to photograph, and often all three.

In those different fences is a story about big cat conservation. Few fences are cat-proof. If you farm game, cheetahs and leopards are enemies to which you will give no quarter. Their natural prey is your profit.

Staying one night at a game farm near the Botswana-Namibian border, we sit drinking our gin and tonics, watching the sunset, and talking to its owner. “How are you gemsbok doing?” “ And your kudu?” Then, “and do you have cheetahs?” “Ouch! We have a massive problem with cheetahs!” the owner replies. “We’ve killed 35 this year alone on our property. Our neighbours killed 20.”

Around Ghanzi, the land surface is a waterless as elsewhere, but just beneath the surface is an aquifer that makes it possible to ranch domestic animals. The style of the fences changes and, with it, the possibilities for protecting big cats.

We’re visiting Big Cats grantee Jane Horgan — and her dogs. Murphy welcomes us enthusiastically. He’s a large, loveable Anatolian. Be under no illusion: dogs may be our best friends, but altruism has nothing to do with it.

Anatolians have a reputation as guarding dogs, but it’s one based on their success in Anatolia, where winters are severe. Experiences using this breed in the drylands of southern Africa have not been good. They do not handle the heat, they are prone to disease, and their large size means a voracious appetite, something poor ranchers often cannot provide. Many develop cancers of the tongue. Some projects using them — not ones funded by NGS, I must stress — have seen high death rates, often at the hands of their owners.

So, Jane is trying the local dogs — the ones herdsman have used traditionally. Cheetah Conservation Botswana has a model ranch. The pups are put with the goats and sheep, brought up with them, and consider them family. After neutering the dogs and giving them their shots, the project puts them to work with local ranches, charging the ranchers a small amount for each pup.

Photo:  Stuart Pimm
Photo: Stuart Pimm

Jane is under no illusion about this project. Cheetah Conservation Botswana staff visits the owners regularly thereafter to make sure the dogs are being treated well. They provide free veterinary care when needed.  Some are being treated too well and live as family and not working dogs. Either way, they find the dogs newer homes.

The work has only just started, but Jane impresses me with her crisp scientific approach to her work. Yes, we all want the project to be a success, and who can argue with the dogs’ appeal? But, above all, we need to know whether these dogs will provide a workable solution. We need to know if they protect livestock and, if so, whether the herdsman will be less inclined to kill cats in retaliation. Knowing what works and what doesn’t work so we can try something else, offers the best hope for protecting big cats.

Stuart Pimm is the Doris Duke Professor of Conservation at the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.

Stuart Pimm is the Doris Duke Chair of Conservation Ecology at the Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University. He is a world leader in the study of present day extinctions and what we can do to prevent them. Pimm received his BSc degree from Oxford University in 1971 and his Ph.D from New Mexico State University in 1974. Pimm is the author of nearly 300 scientific papers and four books. He is one of the most highly cited environmental scientists. Pimm wrote the highly acclaimed assessment of the human impact to the planet: The World According to Pimm: a Scientist Audits the Earth in 2001. His commitment to the interface between science and policy has led to his testimony to both House and Senate Committees on the re-authorization of the Endangered Species Act. He has served on National Geographic’s Committee for Research and Exploration and currently works with their Big Cats Initiative. In addition to his studies in Africa, Pimm has worked in the wet forests of Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil for decades and is a long-term collaborator of the forest fragmentation project north of Manaus, Brazil. Pimm directs SavingSpecies, a 501c3 non-profit that uses funds for carbon emissions offsets to fund local conservation groups to restore degraded lands in areas of exceptional tropical biodiversity. His international honours include the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement (2010), the Dr. A.H. Heineken Prize for Environmental Sciences from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (2006).
  • Bert Jenkins

    Both Cheetahs and Dogs work in groups so it is not just many dogs against one Cat. How does group dynamics matter?

  • Deborah Wettlaufer

    The author’s comment that experiences using the Anatolian shepherd breed for guarding livestock in southern Africa haven’t been good is not correct. That may be the case in Botswana but not in South Africa where the Anatolian has proven to be a very effective livestock guarding dog. Since 2005 over 170 Anatolians have been placed on farms mostly in cheetah range, in Limpopo and North West provinces, and recently 2 Anatolians just across the border in southern Botswana, with great success. Farmers who have obtained Anatolians to guard their livestock have gone from multiple annual losses to, in many cases, no losses at all. Some farmers are such big supporters of the Anatolian LGD programme here that they have 2 or 3 dogs on their farms guarding different herds. The Anatolian has proven to be a very effective means of non-lethal predator control in South Africa.

    Regarding the comment above, only males form coalitions of 2 to 5; females are solitary except when they have cubs.

  • Niki Rust

    I have published a journal article on the use of Anatolian shepherds in South Africa (see here: You will note that none of the dogs had tongue cancer and none died “at the hands of their owners”. In fact, the biggest contributor to pre-senile death was snake bites, something which I know many dogs in southern Africa fall prey to – not just Anatolians. A number also died in accidents, which, if you read any other LGD journal article that reports deaths, you will see falls in line with figures for any other LGD breed.

    I am unsure what you refer to when you say that they do not handle the heat, because from my experience dealing with these dogs in both South Africa and Namibia, they work long hours in the heat and do not seem phased by it.

    “Their large size means a voracious appetite, something poor ranchers often cannot provide”. Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF) in Namibia are using a smaller breed, a Kangal-mixed breed, exactly for this reason. Also Cheetah Outreach and CCF both provide cheap/free dog food for farmers on low incomes.

    I am surprised that this author can make such bold claims against Anatolians without doing correct research to back these up.

  • rosemary macgregor

    your information regarding the Anatolians is incorrect

  • Jane Horgan has responded to these comments in a subsequent blog

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