Changing Planet

CA Farmers Find Unlikely Ally In Weathering Drought: A Major Utility Company

By Peyton Fleming
Senior Communications Director, Ceres

Barat Bisabri, a farmer in the Central Valley, stands in front of some of the 65 acres of grapefruit trees and naval oranges that he’s being forced to let go without any water.

Joe Segura works for the electric and gas utility PG&E, but he sounds more like a farmer when you spend time with him.

Driving around the drought-parched San Joaquin Valley here in California’s Central Valley, Segura winces as he describes groundwater wells “being sucked dry” and drives by full-grown citrus trees dying because farmers don’t have enough water to sustain them.

“With row crops like lettuce, you can simply not plant. If you have trees, you can’t just not give them water for a year,” said Segura, a PG&E account manager, as we pass by a hilly grove of water-starved grapefruit trees with dry dull-green leaves and withered fruit.

Segura is on the front lines of helping the state’s massive agriculture industry attempt to weather a devastating drought that is expected to cost the state $2.2 billion, including $810 million in reduced crop revenues, as well as some 17,000 seasonal and part-time jobs. He’s a living testament to the close interdependency between water use, food production and energy costs.

In California, the water, food and energy nexus is especially profound. PG&E alone has 35,000 agriculture customers in its service area, which covers most of Central and Northern California. As much as 19 percent of the state’s total electrical consumption is for pumping, treating, collecting and discharging water – the vast majority of it used for growing crops, according to a 2014 Congressional Research Service report.

PG&E sees a big opportunity to help farmers reduce their water use – and electricity use – at the same time. By doing so, it can save precious water, help farmers save money and help the power company itself reduce overall electricity demand which means avoiding having to build costly new power plants.

Segura has a few tools at his disposal, the biggest being financial incentives to help farmers switch to water-saving technologies such as drip irrigation and low-pressure sprinklers, as well as energy-saving pumping systems. (See video)

Among the many farmers taking advantage of these programs is Barat Bisabri, an Iranian-born farmer who grows almonds, olives and various citrus crops on 1,200 acres in the Central Valley.

Bisabri thinks and dreams about water. Two of the state’s biggest water aqueducts – the Delta-Mendota Canal and the California Aqueduct – are adjacent to his fields in Newman. His water allotment this year from those aqueducts is zero.

Bisabri has cobbled together a patchwork quilt of supplies for some – but not all – of his fields. It includes a bit of groundwater from two new wells, allotments from annual crop growers who are fallowing their fields, and additional supplies from neighboring farmers who are able to withdraw water from the Delta-Mendota Canal due to their more senior water rights.

And none of this water comes cheap. “It’s 10 to 20 times more expensive this year compared to normal years,” said Bisabri, who will pay about $1 million for water this year.

Just as painful, he’s being forced to let some of his permanent citrus crops go without any water at all, including 65 acres of grapefruit trees and naval oranges that are being left to die.

Bisabri’s partnership with PG&E is, at least, helping.

Barat Bisabri shows micro sprinklers that distributes a light, steady stream of water on the roots of trees, helping to curb water use.
Barat Bisabri shows micro sprinklers that distributes a light, steady stream of water on the roots of trees, helping to curb water use.

A stone’s throw from his porch is a field of one-year-old orange trees. Alongside each tree is a tiny sprinkler that distributes a light, steady stream of water on the roots with clarion accuracy – far more efficiently than overhead sprinklers.By using the water-saving sprinklers this year (PG&E pays for the sprinklers, but not the irrigation system), Bisabri will put only a quarter acre-foot of water on these bushes, compared to 1.5 acre-feet in a normal year. (An acre-foot is the water needed to cover an acre with a foot of water.) The micro sprinklers are curbing his overall water use in young and old orchards by about 25 percent combined.

“What I’m saving due to these PG&E-sponsored technologies is at least $200,000 in water costs,” he said.

Another advantage is less water means less pumping. “Because we’re pushing less water, our pump size can be reduced by at least in half,” he said, noting that smaller pumps cut his energy bills by more than half.

Bisabri is also a big fan of PG&E’s time-of-use rates, expanded last year for small- and medium-size growers, that make it far less costly to irrigate during off-peak hours instead of hot daytime hours when watering is far less efficient. Overall, Bisabri says the savings on his electric bills from using the micro sprinklers and the off-peak watering rates is more than $30,000 a month.

PG&E has expanded its agriculture offerings since the onset of the drought and is spending more than $10 million a year on rebates and incentives for water- and energy-saving irrigation and pumping equipment. Last year, PG&E’s programs saved about 1.9 billion gallons of water; two-thirds of those savings were the direct result of farmers switching from high-pressure irrigation systems to more efficient methods.

Still, there’s much more that could be done. Less than 25 percent of the utility’s agriculture customers are taking advantage of its programs and the amount of water being saved is only a pittance of the estimated 13 million acre-feet of groundwater California farmers are expected to pump this year, according to a new University of California-Davis report.

PG&E’s Patrick Mullen, director of agriculture services, agreed that these efforts need to be scaled. “PG&E and the Public Utilities Commission are working closely to develop and fund new and innovative energy- and water-saving programs,” he said. “Of course, we’d like do more.”

This column is part of a series exploring how California companies are pursuing innovative approaches to protect depleted groundwater supplies amid the state’s devastating drought and groundwater reform legislation being debated in Sacramento.

About the Author

Peyton Fleming is senior communications director at Ceres, a nonprofit organization mobilizing business and investor leadership on global sustainability challenges. Connect with him on Twitter @PeytonCeres or by email Learn more about Ceres at

Ceres is a sustainability nonprofit organization working with the most influential investors and companies to build leadership and drive solutions throughout the economy. Through powerful networks and advocacy, Ceres tackles the world’s biggest sustainability challenges, including climate change, water scarcity and pollution, and human rights abuses.
  • Stephanie

    We found, even with growing traditional crops here in FL with high heat and sandy soil, that heavy mulching reduced our watering from twice a day, down to twice a week.

    Back to Eden method does work.

    We simply took what the tree trimmers and landscapers ground up and hauled to the dump and asked them to dump it in our yard instead. It takes almost a year to break down but boy did it save a lot of work and expense in watering!

    Now this year, we are getting rain almost every day and the mulch is also helping keep everything from flooding out like it did in previous years.

  • chahbani

    I have conceived 2 efficient technologies for the water resources mobilization, conservation and saving to develop a sustainable rain fed agriculture and irrigated agriculture. The 2 technologies are:
     The first technology (the buried diffuser) saves a huge of water: to produce the same weight of wood it uses 2 times less water then drip irrigation. This means that with the same water volume the diffuser produces 3 times more then drip irrigation. This is not a dream it has been verified in famers’ field in arid conditions (Tunisia). More then that: “the buried diffuser” allows anticipating the irrigation of the crop (trees or cereals: corn, wheat etc). That means that instead of irrigation in spring and summer, the anticipated irrigation is done during autumn and winter when the water is more available especially from dams, rivers and springs. This good way to alleviate the negative effects of drought (like the one in western states of USA specially California) and to escape the crops and make it sure and regular although the climate change. Further then the anticipated irrigation, with buried diffuser, especially for trees plantations, it is possible to inject the water in the deep soil layers of the plantations to be conserved and used (by the trees roots systems) during 3 dry years. Anticipated irrigation and water injection (using buried diffusers) in the deep soil layers are still used by farmers in Tunisia with very interesting results.

     The “draining floater” for water “pumping” and distribution for dams, rivers, springs and rain water ground water storage reservoir. This technology does not use any pump and energy it works with gravity using the siphon principle.

    For further informations visit our website: or contact me using email: and cell phone: +21698254383

    With our US partner, we are introducing the buried diffuser and the draining floater, first in California, Nevada, Arizona, . The contact information of our partner: Kenneth J Parker: email: . He is based in Los Angeles.

  • Adam

    PG&E’s agricultural energy efficiency programs are great and much-needed, especially this year, BUT it’s worth mentioning that these efficiency programs are mandated by California law and paid for by PG&E’s ratepayers.

    This is not just some great Corporate Social Responsibility project that PG&E decided to OK.

    Again, not to discount these great programs, but the context is important to understand, especially when this is being used as an example of “how California companies are pursuing innovative approaches to protect depleted groundwater supplies ” and “business and investor leadership on global sustainability challenges”.

  • George Burmeister

    Well done, Peyton. Thank you for the excellent article. PG&E remains one of the best investor owned utilities in the world, and the impacts highlighted in your story are often typical of their water, energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. Thank you.

    George Burmeister
    President, Colorado Energy Group, Inc.
    (Former Clinton Administration Political Appointee, Executive Director of the Solar Lobby, State Political Director for the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Sierra Club, and 20-year Energy Efficiency Consultant in California)

  • Ali Ghorbanzadeh, PhD, P.E.

    test only

  • Ali Ghorbanzadeh, PhD, P.E.

    Quite well done but not a surprise to me.

    As Dr. Francis Chung put it, the Sea water level rise is real and it causes Sea water with 40,000 PPM in T.D.S. (measure of salinity) inundate the Delta. That requires huge amount of fresh water with less than 100 PPM to be released from the reservoirs to push back the sea water which is wasted. The fragile levees around the Delta islands can fail ( which has many times in the past) and would fail in a major earth quake that would cause catastrophic contamination (by salt water intrusion) of the fertile Delta islands and the only hub for the States water exports that can result affecting water supply for up to 19 million Californians.

    Unfortunately, while the two proposed Tunnels carrying fresh water directly from Sacramento River directly to the States and Federal pumping stations at Tracy helps water deliveries South of Delta, not only it harms the Delta environment but also does nothing to prevent the seawater intrusion in case of levee breaks or sea water level rise due to the climate change already in progress. Huge amounts of fresh water is being released into the ocean noted as the Net Delta Outflow in order to create a hydraulics barrier against sea water intrusion.

    I took early retirement in 2004 from the Department of Water Resources after working under Dr. Francis Chung as a Senior Engineer for twenty years of analyzing different alternatives for improving the Delta hydrodynamics and water quality, water supply augmentation and reliability via mathematical modelings, Prior to joining the Delta Modeling section headed by Dr. Chung, I worked in flood modeling and forecasting for a year and then with the Engineering Division for four years on the Design and the lab. testing of the intake for the ” Peripheral Canal” that was voted done by the voters. In fact the “Peripheral Canal” proposed then was an open channel version of the current Two Tunnel proposed plan.

    For more than past ten years, I have been continuously searching for some viable solution for the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta and now I have come up with a proposal that does address all of the issues stated above and provides a reliable and long term solution at much less cost than the proposed Tunnels . It increase the water supply and improves water quality by reducing the requirement for the Net Delta Outflow, provide solutions for the sea water level rise , and catastrophic levee breaches in case of major earth quakes.

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