Huge, Rare Vultures Make Impressive Flying Journeys

Traveling 125 miles under your own power might take a human a week a more to complete. For an endangered Ruppell’s vulture with an epic wingspan of roughly 8 feet, it’s a mere day trip.

Ruppell’s vultures rise up on thermals of hot air and can easily travel 125 miles in a day. (Photo by Munir Virani)

Long Way to Go for a Meal

Carcasses are the major source of food for large vultures. Across Africa, the distribution and availability of carcasses changes from week to week and from year to year. For a vulture, where you dined yesterday is unlikely to be where you’ll dine next week.

Cattle, antelopes, and other large mammals that make up the bulk of vultures’ diet die or are killed in unpredictable places and at less than predictable times. Often small protected areas with few predators and prey cannot provide the food needed to sustain a 15-pound bird. Therefore, to survive only by feeding on carrion, as most species of vultures do, you need to be an aerial nomad, able to traverse large areas on a near daily basis to find food.

So vultures are constantly on the move.

Keeping Up With the Ruppell’s

We recently tracked three Ruppell’s vultures in northern Kenya. Their daily and seasonal movements would make even the most extreme fitness fanatics look like couch potatoes.

Using solar tracking devices attached via harness to the vulture’s back, we discovered that one young bird ranged 67,000 square miles over ten months. That’s roughly the size of the state of Oklahoma or the country of Cambodia—an area that is nearly 300 times larger than the home range of some elephants.

It was not unusual for this bird to be in central Kenya one day and then along the Ethiopian border a day or two later, nearly 375 miles away.

Map of Kenya showing movements of three Rüppell’s Vultures. Each color represents a different individual. (Content may not reflect National Geographic's current map policy.)
In this map of Kenya showing movements of three Ruppell’s vultures, each color represents a different individual. (Content may not reflect National Geographic’s current map policy.)

Riding atop thermals of rising hot air, vultures expend little energy in travelling over vast areas. Unfortunately, such efficient modes of travel are not available to those humans foolish enough to try and study them, and keeping tabs on the birds is a constant chore.

Traveling around northern Kenya is not for those easily intimidated—horrible roads and insecurity are constant companions. Conducting fieldwork under the security of a G3 rifle may seem a bit extreme until you realize that well-armed cattle rustlers and drunken strongmen lurk throughout the arid landscape.

Surveying vulture cliffs in northern Kenya. Photo D. Ogada
Geared up with naked eyes and binoculars, we survey vulture cliffs in northern Kenya. (Photo by Darcy Ogada)

The Pay Off

Our work has opened up a window into the lives of the fascinating Ruppell’s vultures.

We now know how far they are traveling, where they are foraging, and where they raise their families. We have also learned just how difficult it is to conserve vultures due to the vast areas and international boundaries that they cross.

Our journey to study and protect these birds undoubtedly still has many more twists and turns, but even as the landscape continues to become more fraught with dangers, we will remain a voice for nature’s most magnificent aerial nomads.

Read All Posts by Darcy Ogada

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Meet the Author
Darcy has worked for The Peregrine Fund’s Africa Program since 2010 and is based in central Kenya. Most of her current work focuses on the conservation of vultures and owls. She is particularly passionate about ending the scourge of wildlife poisoning and stopping the illegal trafficking of owl eggs for belief-based uses in East Africa. Prior to joining The Peregrine Fund she undertook a post-doctoral fellowship with the Smithsonian Institution based at Mpala Research Centre, Kenya. She has studied Mackinder’s Eagle Owls in central Kenya and conducted other research on birds and rodents. She volunteered for the Peace Corps in Niger in 1995 and got her start studying wildlife as a Bald Eagle Nestwatcher for New York State’s Department of Environmental Conservation. She came to Kenya in 2000 where she has lived ever since. Before moving to Kenya she was an avid skier and ice hockey player, now she spends her free time swimming, birding, and hiking and exploring Africa’s mountains with her son. She’s actively involved in a host of local conservation issues as a member of Nature Kenya’s Bird Committee and the Kenya Wildlife Service Bird Taskforce.