Changing Planet

NatGeo Wild’s Big Cat Week: Cougars Undercover

Big Cat Week, Cougars Undercover
Big Cat Week, Cougars Undercover

Its Big Cat Week on NatGeo Wild, and one of the headliner films is Cougars Undercover, a dramatic film following the lives of two mountain lion families in northwest Wyoming. The stars of the film are F51 and F61, adult female mountain lions studied by Panthera’s Teton Cougar Project, an ongoing work addressing diverse ecological questions that began in late 2000. F51’s mothering style is described as “like a hippie mother, just providing lots of love, but not necessarily all the sustenance they need [her kittens],” while “super mum” F61 comes across as a sleek, stern, and extremely competent provider. Read a review of the film in the Wall Street Journal, or watch a clip from the film here.

We, at Panthera, are thrilled for the opportunity to highlight the challenges wild mountain lions face in rugged western landscapes. They are a species that receive little conservation attention, and a species often maligned and misunderstood. We hope the film begins to paint a new picture of what mountain lions really are. You can still catch the film in the coming week if you missed its original debut—air times can be found here.

The film was a collaborative effort between the BBC, NatGeo Wild and Panthera, but in the end, it was professional filmmakers that told the story. And they did a wonderful job of it, relaying the intensity of mountain lion lives, and even some of the melodrama of the characters that follow them. Nevertheless, there are several additional points we would like to provide, as background information for viewers. Several of these are born of questions we have received since the release of the film.

F51, an adult female mountain lion wearing a satellite GPS collar, and 2 of her 4 kittens born in 2013. Photograph by Mark Elbroch / Panthera.
F51, an adult female mountain lion wearing a satellite GPS collar, and 2 of her 4 kittens born in 2013. Photograph by Mark Elbroch / Panthera.

Collaring mountain lions. We do not capture and handle mountain lions lightly, nor for no reason. Every research project weighs the conservation questions driving the research, with the various methods that yield different types of data. Nearly everything we know about some animals, for example gray squirrels and pronghorn, we have learned through direct observation in natural settings. Other species are difficult to watch in the wild because they prefer dawn and dusk to day, structured habitats to wide open spaces, and they wander vast areas too difficult to monitor all at the same time. Or worse, they stalk prey, so utilize cover and camouflage to make themselves invisible.  Wild cats, mountain lions among them, do all of these things to avoid our notice. They live like shadows in between us, and for these reasons GPS collars are exception tools in studying these magnificent, elusive creatures.

Most importantly for our work, GPS collars provide us “fate data.” The collars allow us to find mountain lions that die, and to determine their cause of death. We can, for example, tell you the leading cause of death for kittens less than 6 months old in our study area is wolves, and that the leading cause of death for adults is human hunting. This is essential information in creating effective conservation strategies to aid the local population. Please refer here for a more developed discussion and question/answer section about collars and catching cougars.

F51 and her female offspring, F70, seated near an elk cow killed by F51. Photograph by Mark Elbroch / Panthera.
F51 and her female offspring, F70, seated near a cow elk killed by F51. Note the collars–a tiny hand-sewn, stretchy collar for F70, and an approximately 475-gram GPS collar for F51. Photograph by Mark Elbroch / Panthera.

Feeding orphaned kittens. Studying wildlife is a privilege. It is a privilege to engage with wild animals, to handle and touch them, but also a privilege carefully managed by State wildlife agencies—a privilege that can be taken away should a researcher violate the rules governed by their research permits. In general, permission to conduct wildlife research includes stipulations that the researchers avoid any “interference” with their study animals. For example, we must release mountain lions exactly where we catch them—we do not have permission to transport them to other sites. In addition, we do not have permission to provide supplemental feeding, nor in general, would we want to. Our goals are to study natural mountain lion behavior, including how often they feed and what animals they eat.

But we are not heartless—we are more attached to mountain lions than most people. When F51 was killed, we were so certain of her kittens’ demise that we made special requests to support them through supplemental feeding. Time and again, our requests were denied. State managers preferred to allow nature to play out on its own (Please try not to villainize State personnel—their response was reflective of the general mindset of State agencies throughout the country). When F75 finally died of starvation, we were not only granted permission to feed F99, but State personnel provided the meat and participated in its distribution. This was a wonderful effort by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department to listen to their community and to act in compassionate fashion—and they should be commended for it.

F99 was fed four times, and thereafter she survived on her own. Why these details were omitted from the film, we cannot say. We did detail bits of their story in various CatWatch blogs: “Orphaned Cougar Kittens and Their Inspiring Will to Survive” and “Fumbling Cougar Kittens.”

F75 lying intimately across her sister, F99. Photograph by Jeff Hogan / Hogan Films.
F75 lying intimately across her sister, F99. Photograph by Jeff Hogan / Hogan Films.

Mountain lions kill each other? This is very near the title of the original blog in which we discuss and ponder the horrific encounter between F51 and M85 (also in the film). I’ll not repeat everything I wrote there, but with further reflection, the encounter may have been an indirect effect of human hunting. M29, the father of F51’s kittens, was shot and killed. M85, the neighboring male, began to probe west into M29’s former territory, where he met F51. To our knowledge, F51 and M85 had never met before.

I’d emphasize that F51 appeared to attack M85, based on evidence in the snow, not the other way around. Our research has shown that males are hardly ever aggressive—only in rare territorial disputes with other males. Males generally don’t have to be aggressive—their size and strength deters actual physical competition and hostility.

Remote camera technology. As you watch the film, appreciate that the overwhelming majority of the visual imagery used to weave the story was captured with motion-triggered cameras. We’ve spent years testing and building HD cameras (and have lost count of the monumental failures in our adventures). Jeff Hogan, the cameraman for the film, had  been working on similar challenges, and we worked together with Pete Abdu, another experimental camera maker, to create the cameras we currently use—this film is a debut of our refined methods and the amazing insights remote cameras have provided us into the secret lives of mountain lions. No doubt, these methods could be applied to so many other species as well.

Three cougar kittens defending their positions around a beaver carcass. Photograph by Michelle Peziol / Panthera
Three cougar kittens defending their positions around a beaver carcass. Photograph by Michelle Peziol / Panthera

With that, we hope you catch Cougars Undercover during Big Cat Week or sometime beyond, if you haven’t done so already. Its an amazing portrayal of the dramatic lives of mountain lions, much of which was previously unknown until quite recently. We’d like to extend special thanks to Roger Webb, David Johnson, Anna Place, and Janet Vissering (and their extended teams) from the production side for their generous support and making such a beautiful movie. We hope its enjoyed by many.

And if you are interested, follow updates on F61, who still prowls her territory, “Frostbite” (F61’s female offspring in the film), and other cougars on our Facebook page. We’ve also recently launched an internet portal to share more mountain lion images and videos—called the “Cougar Channel.” Check it out to watch more wild mountain lions acting naturally.


Mark Elbroch has contributed to puma research in Idaho, Colorado, California, Wyoming, and Chile, and lots of other carnivores along the way. He earned his PhD at the University of California, Davis, where his dissertation research focused on puma ecology in Patagonia in the presence of endangered humeul deer. He has authored/coauthored 10 books on natural history ( and numerous scientific articles published in peer-review journals. Mark is currently a Project Leader for Panthera, a US-based non-profit that conducts science to promote wild cat conservation worldwide.
  • Roseanne Staab

    Dear Mr. Elbroch:
    Thank you for your relentless efforts on behalf of the native American Mountain Lions of the western US. It is uplifting and inspiring to see how much people care about the fate of a species, as you trudge through the snow, et al, to monitor the cats.
    It is imperative that the cougar moves to the front of all discussions with state regulators and conservation groups in a “species alert,” as the data of your studies reveals very disturbing figures.
    Dialog and theories must be presented for resolving the two leading causes of cougar population decline, wolves and mankind. Theories regarding the wolves must be plausible and a serious look at urban redevelopment and sport hunting should also be mentioned.
    Often, fish and wildlife regulators sit in big city offices and never set foot in the field. Your data should be a major wake-up call to the entire nation, especially for conservationists. The reasoning of Wyoming Fish and Wildlife of letting nature take its course is deplorable, under these particular circumstances. Veterinary care could be given, for medical or parasite issues, and a road-kill carcass or side of beef deposited at sites the cats are known to frequent.
    It is not sport to run an animal until it can’t breath and then shoot it down from a tree. No one eats the meat and a cougar fur rug or head on the wall is really “gauche,” in my opinion.
    “Safari photo shoots” should be the new sport and education of the public is very important.
    Perhaps volunteers can go into elementary schools with power point presentations and slide shows, to show youth the beauty of these magnificent cats. Names could be given to the cats, instead of numbers, and people could “follow” their favorite one. Contests could be held, to name the cats and their babies, to draw awareness to their plight.
    “Frostbite” is an excellent name for a wild cougar.
    I urge continued use of social media, and to join with other conservation groups to target magazine ads outside the wildlife genre. The “cute factor” of the kittens is stellar, and cute can be the first introduction to the issue, to the uninformed.
    The cats should be considered our posterity, and even big game hunter Teddy Roosevelt saw the wisdom of conservation and species preservation.
    The time is now. How much land does cattle need to graze on and how much land does man need to develop?
    I know that as the cougars “…climb the cathedral mountains and see silver clouds below, that their hearts still hold some fear, of the simple thing they cannot comprehend. Why (man) tries to tear the mountains down and bring in a couple more, more people, more scars upon the land,” as the late John Denver put it.
    Thanks to you, Mr. Elbroch, and your organization, we were able to get a magical peek inside the secret world of cougars. Thanks to all of you, the plight of a very beautiful animal is being brought to light.
    Remain diligent.
    Roseanne Staab
    Community News Linesville

  • Ryan O’Hara

    Thanks for expounding, Dr. Elbroch. I’ve been following the study’s progress on the Panthera Puma Project Facebook page and was looking forward to seeing it manifested into a film. An interesting backstory was the clear grief you tried to hide when you lost a lion. It wasn’t just a nature story, it was a human story about a man’s love of wildlife and his attempts to save it too whether it was intended to be or not.

    I’m partly envious of your job yet partly relieved I don’t have to deal with tone deaf politicians selling out to Elmer Fudds. But I definitely admire your drive and dedication to the greater good. I hope to see you in the media more often.

    – a Panthera donor

  • S. Chancy Grigg

    The result of the study was to reduce sport hunting for mountain lions. Obviously the documentary did not consider increasing the sporting on wolves. Wolves have proven to kill and destroy habits of other animas. A Yellowstone study showed that since wolves have been introduced the elk population has plummeted to critical levels of survival. Wolves kill and kill regardless of food need. They destroy livestock and in our history were basically killed out for this reason. Mountain lions did not have to be reintroduced to the wild…nor should they have more protection.

  • M mcdonald

    My wife and daughter belive they have seen a Cougar in our wooded yard.
    I have not been able to confirm any other sightings.
    Where are sightings posted for Northern Illinois and
    Southern Wisconsin
    Thank you

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