Changing Planet

As salmon dwindle, whales die

Co-authored by Erica Cirino

Killer whales in British Columbia. Credit: Carl Safina
Killer whales in British Columbia. Credit: Carl Safina

Governor Jay Inslee visited the San Juan Islands over Labor Day weekend for two reasons: to secure voters, and to get a little peace and quiet. While he did find those two things, he was also confronted with something else—orca advocates seeking help for the region’s Southern Resident killer whales.

On the morning of September 3, atop Mount Grant, Inslee listened to the pleas of the orca group to remove dams from the Snake River to help replenish wild salmon stocks. In turn, he asked the group—which included both concerned scientists and citizens—questions about the importance of Columbia-Snake River Basin and its salmon to the orcas. The answer: With dams on the Columbia, there are fewer salmon, and with fewer salmon, the orcas will continue starving to death.

“We leave dams on rivers when they’re not needed anymore, continue to put toxins in the water and then build fish hatcheries and farms which have their own problems,” says Dr. Deborah Giles, research director at the Center for Whale Research who was one of the orca advocates who spoke to Inslee on Mount Grant. “Normally nature is resilient, but now the salmon have diminished to a level where they can’t rebound.”

At one point, the Columbia-Snake River Basin produced a greater amount of salmon than any other river system in the world. Each year, 10 to 16 million wild salmon returned each year to the basin to spawn. But today, just one percent of the historic number of fish return to the basin annually.

Chinook salmon in the fish ladder at the Hiram M Chittenden Locks near Seattle. Credit: Josh Larios
Chinook salmon in the fish ladder at the Hiram M Chittenden Locks near Seattle. Credit: Josh Larios (Wikimedia Commons)

The major culprit, experts say, is the four-dam system that was installed on the lower Snake River to create an inland seaport in Lewiston, Idaho, and produce electricity. Many salmon cannot get past the dams, which can kill fish in several ways. If fish don’t get crushed in turbines, they sometimes get caught on screens meant to protect them from being taken up into turbines. Most often, they’re killed by the intense heat and water pressure created by the dams. Many salmon die and therefore do not get to spawn. There are far fewer salmon born that successfully migrate to the sea, which is where they go to grow before returning to the river to spawn and die. And this, in turn, is killing whales.

“NOAA scientists have found that the damming of this river had the biggest negative impact on the Southern Residents’ food source,” says Giles. “This is probably the single biggest hit this fragile whale population has taken.”

The Southern Residents population of killer whales lives in the Salish Sea off the Pacific Northwest coast. It’s a critically endangered population, meaning it faces a very high extinction risk. When listed as federally endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 2005, the population was about 88 whales. Today it’s about 80 whales, with 37 Southern Residents dying over the past 11 years, while just 21 have been born and survived—a nearly two-to-one death ratio.

Killer whales. Credit: Carl Safina
Killer whales. Credit: Carl Safina

Giles says a lack of salmon is only the latest of many problems that have threatened the survival of the wild Southern Resident population. Back in 1970, over 80 whales from this group were rounded up in local waters, where U.S. aquarium staff took 37 whales into captivity. Approximately 11 others died during the netting operations, according to NOAA. When captures were banned in 1976, only 71 individuals remained in the free-living population. (All the others have since died in captivity except Lolita, who survives in substandard conditions at the Miami Seaquarium.)

“Today we’re seeing fragmentation: The three pods—J, K and L—that make up this population have so little food that they can no longer be together at the same time,” says Giles, “There is now always a group or two that has to be out at sea feeding.”

Male orca, “porpoising” out of waters off Washington State. Credit: Minette Layne (Wikimedia Commons)

Separation of the pods means a greater chance that individuals within the same pod will breed with each other, which is less genetically desirable than breeding between individuals of two different pods. Less genetic diversity means a lower overall survival rate for the whales.

Several organizations including the Center for Whale Research, Southern Resident Killer Whale Chinook Salmon Initiative and the Orca-Salmon Alliance all recommend removing dams they see as no longer necessary. They point out that today, on-river shipping is down to 18 percent of what it was when the four dams were installed in the 60s and 70s; a train system now runs along the river, which could be used for shipping; and there is no way to store the excess power created by the river in the springtime when the river is creating the greatest amount of energy.

Hypothetically, being earthen berm dams, the dams on the Snake River could be removed in a matter of weeks with bulldozers, thereby without greatly disturbing the river ecosystem.

Today some are proposing feeding the starving Southern residents—many of which are displaying clear signs of starvation like exposed ribs and “peanut head”—hatchery salmon, but Giles sees that as just a Band-Aid on the bigger problem of the dams’ existence.

“Peanut head” on an orca is a condition where the extreme loss of fat around the head causes areas that should be full and round to be sunken and concave. This photo comes from a presentation given by Dr. Lance Barrett Leonard, Dr. John Durban and Dr. Holly Fearnbach at Telegraph Cove’s Whale Interpretive Centre on August 25th, 2014. Photo: Hildering
“Peanut head” on an orca is a condition where the extreme loss of fat around the head causes areas that should be full and round to be sunken and concave. This photo comes from a presentation given by Dr. Lance Barrett Leonard, Dr. John Durban and Dr. Holly Fearnbach at Telegraph Cove’s Whale Interpretive Centre on August 25th, 2014. Photo: Hildering

“Feeding the Southern Residents hatchery fish is a short-term solution,” says Giles. “Humans think we can fix things through engineering but we should do reverse engineering: take down dams, eliminate point-source pollution, keep things in as natural a state as possible. And that includes replenishing the wild salmon and orca populations.”

Perhaps the only way we’ll know if Inslee has taken the orca advocates’ messages to heart is if and when the dams come down.

Ecologist Carl Safina is author of seven books, including the best-selling “Beyond Words; What Animals Think and Feel,” and “Song for the Blue Ocean,” which was a New York Times Notable Book of the Year. His writing has won a MacArthur “genius” prize; Pew and Guggenheim Fellowships; book awards from Lannan, Orion, and the National Academies; and the John Burroughs, James Beard, and George Rabb medals. His work has been featured in The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, National Geographic, and elsewhere, and he hosted the 10-part “Saving the Ocean” on PBS. Safina is founding president of The Safina Center at Stony Brook University.
  • Kate-Lyn Jones

    Guys, these dams need to come down now! If not it’ll be too late for them and they’ll all die!

  • Kate-Lyn Jones

    Not to mention that having Lolita in a Sea pen (where she can be trained to hunt fish and still receive medical care) will not only rise her quality of life exponentially but will also give the population another possible breeding member. In that tank she cannot help her pod, not to mention that since she’s from an endangered pod and the only member of that pod left in captivity, the Miami Seaquarium is breaking laws by not putting her with another member of her own kind and not having a breeding program to help “raise their numbers”.

  • Jim Waddell, Civil Engineer, PE, Corps of Engineers Retired

    What needs to be clear is that the whales do not have enough to eat NOW, thus when people/organizations talk about breaching they need to say breach the dams NOW. That means starting this year, which is entirely possible. Indeed the Corps of Engineers has been sitting on updated economic and biological data and a breach plan, consistent with an existing Environmental Impact Statement, for the past year and has failed to act. Gov, Inlsee needs to, well demand, that the Corps exercise their inherent authorities to stop this impending disaster. They must not wait for a Judge to tell them to do it nor do they need Congress to authorize breaching or pass new appropriation bills. The salmon and orcas cannot wait on more studies and paper that will initially cost $40 million and would certainly exceed $100 million. Once again, start breaching NOW, this year! It can be done.

  • Jacques White

    Nice article Carl. Columbia and Snake River Chinook are a critically important food resource for Southern Resident Killer Whales while they are in the Pacific Ocean. But SRKWs spend most of the summer and early fall in the Salish Sea, the shared inland marine waters of Washington State and British Columbia, Canada. Salish Sea Chinook returning to the Fraser River and rivers flowing to Puget Sound are severely reduced as a result of poor early marine survival – this is why the pods are having to break up and go back out to sea during summer – there is no food! Addressing the issue of poor marine survival for Chinook and other Salish Sea salmon is a critically important issue to recover wild stocks and support orcas along with tribal and non-tribal fisheries.

  • Deborah Martyn

    This is a great article, thanks!! I still very much support the short term helping hand to feed the Southern Residents some hatchery fish ASAP!
    Of course, it is essential to remove the Lower Snake River dams , and other dams that are being considered for removal such as in the Klamath River.
    Of course, we need to address the polluting of streams by untreated storm water run off.
    Of course we need to stop raising farmed salmon in the sea with all it’s disease spreading and ecosystem altering affects. Of course we need to improve near shore habitat for juvenile salmon.
    However, J28 is hungry NOW. She is looking better than she was a couple weeks ago, that is good, but she and the others of her tribe are still especially hungry this year and in now-time risk . Saving even one orca such as this child bearing age female along with her nursing calf is so important so I think this direct means of supporting these starving whales by feeding them is a legit idea.
    It is not a this OR that thing. It is AND … and AND …!!!!
    If you were starving I would feed you some supper and then we could talk about how to empower you to build a prospering life.

  • Alisha troyer

    Save the orcas, save the salmon, tear down the dams.

  • Nataliya

    It’s disaster. Humans are the worst! We should do something to save amazing killer whales!!! If I could do something I would do everything to them.

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