Human Journey

Oysters Built the East Coast. Now Entrepreneurs are Rebuilding the Oysters.

Checking cages at Masonboro Reserve Oyster Co.

The East Coast was literally built on oysters. At the peak of their production as a food source, these shellfish were so plentiful from the Gulf Coast to New England that discarded shells were crushed and used to pave roads. Oysters kept bays and waterways clean—Chesapeake Bay residents didn’t need to treat or filter their water. A 1913 National Geographic article proclaimed them “the world’s most valuable water crop,” cultivated as a year-round, dependable and inexpensive protein source. About 150,000 people in 35 countries worked to produce “the most popular and most extensively eaten of all shellfish.”

Courtesy of Sandbar Oyster Co.
Courtesy of Sandbar Oyster Co.

The situation more than a century later is quite different. Oysters remain desirable, but populations have been decimated.

The Oyster Mom with her first harvest: 3000 oysters.
The Oyster Mom with her first harvest: 3000 oysters.

The Gulf of Mexico has just 10 percent of its peak oyster population, and Chesapeake Bay is down to a mere 1 percent. The situation has been described as dire by many locals, who’ve seen dredging, overharvesting and disease destroy oyster habitats. As a result, we’re losing ecosystem services that oysters provide to estuaries, and water in these regions is not nearly as clean as it used to be. Loss of oyster beds also leads to the decline of juvenile finfish, crab populations and seaweed growth in these regions, as well as to a loss of jobs and local economic growth opportunities.

Twenty-first century oyster farmers are trying to change this, but they face big challenges. Trade knowledge has been lost, oyster beds are eroded or destroyed, seeds (oysters hatched for transplant) are hard to find in commercial quantities, and their waters are often polluted. Coastal homeowners don’t want their waterfront views blocked by oyster beds, and it’s hard to find trained workers for an industry that’s been dormant.

But there’s still hope that oysters can once again be an economic engine and an environmental asset, particularly in the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast. A new generation of innovators is bringing oyster aquaculture back to life from Florida to Maine, inspired rather than daunted by the challenges.

Almost a dozen oyster innovators joined crab, lobster, shrimp, and other shellfish companies at a recent workshop launching the Fish 2.0 2017 competition’s South Atlantic & Gulf Coast Shellfish & Crustaceans Track, co-hosted by the University of North Carolina, Wilmington, and the Marine Bio-Technologies Center of Innovation. It was exciting to hear from and connect these innovators who are building businesses around solutions to the problems facing oyster farming, simultaneously working toward gains in profit and restoration. Following are some of the fresh ideas currently on the horizon.

A new oyster substrate: Sandbar Oyster Co
A new oyster substrate: Sandbar Oyster Co

New and better oyster beds. Without a substrate to fix onto, oysters can’t grow to maturity. These shellfish are quite hardy, though—the 1913 National Geographic article features photos of oysters thriving on bamboo and rubber boots. One team we met from North Carolina has developed an environmentally friendly substrate material that can be infinitely shaped for different coastlines and habitats and upon which oysters aggregate and thrive.

Diagnostics for oyster farms. Disease is an issue for everyone in aquaculture, and some diagnostics companies are developing pH-type stick tests to quickly identify diseased oysters so farmers can prevent the spread of disease to an entire crop or region.

Real-time data. Until now, most oyster farming data has been captured on paper. One team of entrepreneurs is developing software that will provide farmers with detailed information about growing conditions so they can measure the impact of changes and maximize profits and production.

Modernized operations and equipment. Oyster farms today have concerns not imagined 50 years ago.

Traceability is one: To meet the criteria of sustainability- and health-conscious consumers, farmers have to keep records of harvest dates, growing conditions and more. This all must be automated to work at scale.

Design is another: Oyster farms are now sharing shore space with tourism and residential property.

Harvesting at the Pensacola Bay Oyster Co
Harvesting at the Pensacola Bay Oyster Co

How can they be retooled—both physically and conceptually—to be less obstructive to views, especially in the summer months?

Labor is a third: Several companies are engineering technologies and models that solve these issues while reducing labor needs and improving profitability.  Others, like the Oyster Mom in Florida, are using their oyster farms as a way to engage veterans and others with disabilities in meaningful, confidence building jobs.


Courtesy of Masonboro Reserve Oyster Co
Courtesy of Masonboro Reserve Oyster Co

We’re eager to see these oyster entrepreneurs alongside other business leaders in the Fish 2.0 2017 competition, and we encourage other shellfish or crustacean innovators to enter by the April 29 deadline. Investors and experts interested helping these businesses grow are also encouraged to sign up and offer ventures valuable feedback as advisors or online judges.

It wasn’t that long ago that boats in the Chesapeake Bay had to worry about running aground on the bounty of this water-based crop. Let’s help these innovators create a future where we rebuild not only our oyster beds but also our clean water supply and our waterfront economies.

Courtesy of the Oyster Mom (D. Keller)
Courtesy of the Oyster Mom (D. Keller)
Monica Jain is the founder and Executive Director of Fish 2.0 and Manta Consulting Inc. She has worked for over 20 years in the private sector and philanthropy, and specializes in the creation of innovative financing strategies and structures for impact investors, foundations, and private sector–non-profit partnerships. She has a background in marine biology and a deep passion for both fisheries and social change. Monica has launched several entrepreneurial ventures and has extensive experience in finance and philanthropy. She created Fish 2.0 in 2013 to connect seafood businesses and investors and to grow the sustainable seafood industry globally. Learn more at or
  • Paul Pascarosa

    Great article, Monica. I will certainly share this information with the Cape Fear Economic Development Council.

  • Tim Holbrook

    Great article. It was such an honor to have photos from our farm included in your story.

    Thanks for all of your efforts to help develop innovative ideas to promote aquaculture and sustainable practices.

  • Ryan Speckman

    More oysters = win-win for all user groups

  • Bill

    Oyster Mom (AKA Keller) is doing such a service to the rebirth of oyster farming and for her community, she is a rock star, so proud to call her my dear friend!

  • Holly Bowen

    Is there any way we can promote and contain beds under the many existing docks in our area? This would certainly help the waterways, encouraging the rebuilding of supply, clean water and reducing the chance of running aground. There are many Homeowners and associations that would be willing to help with this.

  • Robert Freson

    Where can we find local Oyster farms or suppliers of oysters
    we are near Brunswick, Bath and Damariscota, etc..
    We love Maine oysters but not easy to find them??

    • One of our Fish 2.0 finalists and winners, Real Oyster Cult, in Maine can provide you with a range of Maine oysters. You can find them on the web and contact them directly.

  • Harvest McCampbell

    Want Your Clams and Oysters Without Poison?

    Urgent Action Alert!
    Save our Wetlands!

    Large commercial oysters growers are seeking a permit to
    spray the systemic and environmentally hazardous neonicotinoid neurotoxin—Imidacloprid–on
    tidal mudflats.

    If they are successful this will create a precedent for
    allowing this environmentally hazardous chemical to be sprayed in wetlands and
    intertidal zones in other states as well.
    While this permit application is for Washington State, if approved it
    will likely affect many other areas.

    This product is clearly marked on the label, “Environmental
    Hazards, Do not apply directly to water, areas where surface water is present or
    to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark.” “This product is toxic to wildlife and highly
    toxic to aquatic invertebrates.” The following statement is also given on the
    Source, page 5:

    The State of Washington has temporarily denied the permit,
    based on sound science. They are
    requesting public comment. The comment
    period is open until May 14th, 2018.
    Comments can be made at the following link:

    The Imidacloprid permit request is for using this chemical in
    non-native commercial oyster beds, where it has been shown that it binds to
    sediment particles and persists for many months. This product has been shown to be toxic to
    arthropods, mollusks, and worms in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments. While binding to sediment particles, Imidacloprid
    solution that comes in contact with water disperses readily. When absorbed by susceptible creatures it
    binds permanently and cumulatively to sites in their cellular structures. Many of the susceptible creatures are
    important to the food web, and their demise–as well as the demise of the
    native burrowing shrimp they wish to target– will affect the entire
    ecosystem. The burrowing shrimp are an
    important keystone species in our coastal wetland ecosystems.

    If you would like to learn more about the importance of
    burrowing shrimp, the dangers of Imidacloprid, or sustainable alternatives to
    off bottom culture for oyster growers please stop by the facebook group, Resisting
    Toxics in Coastal Environments. We have
    collected a large body of evidence addressing these issues which we would be
    happy to share with all interested persons.

    Our priorities are to encourage lasting solutions that will
    help the industry end its long-standing reliance on pesticides and create
    conditions amenable to ecologically and economically sustainable fisheries and shellfish aquaculture. (Highlight and right click URLs to open.)

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