Luxury tourism vs land-based tourism in the Galapagos Islands
Declared a World Heritage Site in 1978, the Galapagos Islands are one of the best examples of effective conservation in the world, thanks to the comprehensive management actions carried out by the Government of Ecuador with huge advice and support from many international individual collaborators and institutions. The preservation of this global treasure has made it one of the most desired destinations for people from around the globe.
The main economic activity on the archipelago is tourism, which traditionally has attracted visitors to enjoy the islands’ wildlife and admire (and photograph) nature up close. What makes the Galapagos unique is the high endemism of species and variety of its landscapes. There are currently more than 70 landing sites for visitors around the archipelago, which are classified in different categories, depending on indicators such as bio-physical, social and management. The establishment of specific visiting sites, itineraries for the boats, naturalist guides training courses, and a system of operating permits have allowed the authorities to keep the ecological impacts to acceptable limits (ECOLAP, CI, 2008).
In the last decade, the number of tourists that stayed in hotels at the different towns of the four inhabited islands has increased. The number of tourists registered for entry into the Galapagos National Park indicates that in 2012 48 percent were not overnight passengers on cruise ships, staying instead in hotels on the different islands. In 2015 this number increased to 68percent (Galapagos National Park Directorate, 2012, 2016). Staying in hotels increases the demand for basic services, food, accommodation, and transportation, while also adding pressure on the natural attractions near the towns. Direct and indirect impacts that result from these activities include introduction of alien species, demand for more energy derived from fossil fuels, and local population increase in limited areas.
All these indicators lead me to ask many more questions about tourism management: What is the tourism model we want for the Galapagos Islands? Do we want to continue increasing the pressure on the fragile islands’ ecosystems that are not capable of withstanding such a high demand for services from our visitors? What is the acceptable capacity of the visitor’s sites that are being mostly frequented?
Johanna Carrión works as a Relationships Coordinator at the Charles Darwin Research Station, she is a permanent resident of the Galapagos Islands and started working at the Station since 2013. The work that Johanna carries out aims to support the establishment and strengthening of strategic national or international alliances that allow us to continue developing science for conservation of the Galapagos Islands. Johanna is also responsible for the follow up of the Strategic Institutional Plan.