National Geographic Society Newsroom

Food, Fuel, Medicine, Wrinkle Reducer: Algae Does It All

You know what there’s really plenty of in the sea? Algae. And I am in love with them. Most people envision algae as slimy, possibly toxic, green scum. But this diverse group of fast-growing aquatic plants is about to undergo an image makeover, and may soon seem flat-out glamorous. Algae got a lot of excited...

You know what there’s really plenty of in the sea? Algae. And I am in love with them. Most people envision algae as slimy, possibly toxic, green scum. But this diverse group of fast-growing aquatic plants is about to undergo an image makeover, and may soon seem flat-out glamorous.

Algae got a lot of excited press a few years ago as a potential biofuel, but they’re turning out to be a sustainable super-ingredient with transformative potential in several massive industries: fish and other animal feeds, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, bioplastics and fertilizers. They’re also gaining favor as a vegetarian seafood. In all, the market for algae products could reach nearly $45 billion by 2023, according to a 2016 Credence Research market analysis.

Micro versus macro: size is a quick guide to what algae can do

Microalgae being processed in a laboratory

Algae’s broad utility stems partly from their abundant variety. Algae fall into two broad categories: microalgae and macroalgae. Microalgae are single-cell organisms, such as chlorella and spirulina, grown mostly in controlled industrial facilities. They’re high in protein and omega-3 fatty acids, which makes them an ideal alternative to increasingly scarce and expensive fish oil—a primary ingredient in feeds. Microalgae also are essential to reinvigorating the shellfish industry. In many oyster-farming areas, for example, the ocean environment no longer provides the algae that oysters need to grow.

Macroalgae are larger aquatic plants, such as seaweed and kelp, that grow in the ocean. They’re an artisanal ingredient in high-value products including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and foods, and they’re relatively easy to grow in coastal areas. This makes them great economic development tools for fishing communities in the global south: algae farming can boost household incomes and provide work for fishers when the weather is too poor for fishing or quotas are exhausted.

Entrepreneurs address the full range of algae’s potential

I was excited to see the number and diversity of algae-focused businesses applying to this year’s Fish 2.0 workshops and competition, all with triple-bottom-line impact at their core. Some ventures are growing microalgae as feed for shellfish or an ingredient in fish feeds. Others are growing algae to create needed jobs, especially for women in coastal communities. Some sell the algae they harvest to pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies; others sell to food companies. And entrepreneurs increasingly are processing the algae themselves to make seaweed snacks, garnishes and products for the natural foods sector and the Japanese restaurant market—a trend that increases the value communities can capture from their algae products, as well as communities’ interest in starting such enterprises.

One example of algae entrepreneurship is Lili Kawaguchi, who won over the room with her pitch at Fish 2.0’s Pacific Islands business development workshop. Her business, South Pacific Mozuku, provides seaweed for high-end cosmetics. Growing the seaweed off the Tonga coast allows the company to develop local stewardship of coastal and marine habitats, so as the business grows, both the people and the reefs of Tonga benefit.

Salty, crunchy … and good for you?

Variety of macro-algae for seaweed salads

I wondered just recently if lionfish would be the new kale. It’s also possible that seaweed snacks will be the new potato chips. While similarly salty and crunchy in its dried and roasted form, seaweed is certainly more nutritious: many varieties are loaded with nutrients, fiber, protein and iodine. U.S. retail sales of seaweed snacks grew about 30 percent in 2014, reaching more than $250 million, and launches in the category have surged in the past two years. In a creative twist, one company is using algae to create faux shrimp.

Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies are studying algae-based products for use in combatting colds, flu, tumors, AIDS, Alzheimer’s and a range of other conditions. And the cosmetics industry is finding that algae can have anti-acne, anti-aging, and other beneficial effects.

Seaweed farming in Indonesia

Algae’s uses are so varied it’s difficult to know where to focus. Fish 2.0’s one-page Investment Insights overview of the algae market offers investors and entrepreneurs an understanding of the opportunities and industry basics. With algae businesses, we have a real opportunity to preserve ocean habitats and enable coastal communities to thrive—while producing natural solutions for disease control, nutrition and skin care.

About National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. Since 1888, National Geographic has pushed the boundaries of exploration, investing in bold people and transformative ideas, providing more than 14,000 grants for work across all seven continents, reaching 3 million students each year through education offerings, and engaging audiences around the globe through signature experiences, stories and content. To learn more, visit or follow us on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook.

Meet the Author

Monica Jain
Monica Jain is the founder and Executive Director of Fish 2.0 and Manta Consulting Inc. She has worked for over 20 years in the private sector and philanthropy, and specializes in the creation of innovative financing strategies and structures for impact investors, foundations, and private sector–non-profit partnerships. She has a background in marine biology and a deep passion for both fisheries and social change. Monica has launched several entrepreneurial ventures and has extensive experience in finance and philanthropy. She created Fish 2.0 in 2013 to connect seafood businesses and investors and to grow the sustainable seafood industry globally. Learn more at or