To be 26 years old – an age between young adulthood and actual adulthood and a time when many begin to ask themselves questions like “who am I?” “what defines me?” “where am I going?” more frequently. As a 26-year-old, I ask myself these questions everyday, usually 20 times a day before noon, as does many other 26-year-olds I know. It would also seem that the people of the Kyrgyz Republic – a country which gained independence from the Soviet Union 26 years ago – are asking the same types of questions, replacing “I” with “we” and “me” with “us”: “Who are we as a nation?” “What defines us?” “Where are we going?”
Anara outside of Bishkek’s Central Mosque. Photo by Toby A. Cox
The nation of the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kyrgyzstan, is, of course, much older than 26. Some sources say its history can be traced back to 1st Century BC; however, it has only been an independent country for 26 years, after centuries of being under the rule of numerous empires with occasional periods of self-governance. This new freedom to define itself has forced the Kyrgyz people to think deeply about what it means to be Kyrgyz.
When I first arrived in Kyrgyzstan in April 2015 as a Peace Corps Volunteer, I admit that I knew nothing of its history, culture, or traditions. However, over the course of 2 years, I learned a great deal about Kyrgyzstan and became fascinated with its history. After seeing Kyrgyz traditions rooted in Tengriism, combined with (and, sometimes, almost blended with) Islamic practices, juxtaposed with traditions remnant of the Soviet Union, I began to wonder how its history and geography has impacted and continues to impact the people’s religious identity.
When the Kyrgyz people were nomadic, they practiced a form of animism and shamanism known as Tengriism. In the Kyrgyz language, Teng means ‘equal’ and Tengriism is the belief in the importance of balance (or equality) in all things in order to maintain harmony in the universe. Tengriism is based on that idea that there is a natural order which can only be achieved by balancing the good and bad energies found in the universe, the two worlds (material and spiritual), within ourselves, and within all other things – both living and non-living. Everything in Kyrgyz culture, from the traditional designs on textiles, to how yurts are constructed, and to how family structure is perceived, can be traced back to Tengriism and to the ancient generations’ efforts to forge symbiosis between them, the material world, and the spiritual world.
Between the 10th-12th centuries the majority of Kyrgyz people converted to Islam, practicing Islam alongside Tengriism. Now, fast forward to 1936 when Kyrgyzstan officially became a republic in the Soviet Union. Under Soviet rule, the open practice of any religion was prohibited; mosques were shut down and information about Islam (and any other religion) was restricted. Those who were religious had to practice in private.
In 1991, Kyrgyzstan became independent. Since independence, Islam has been reintroduced to the public sphere – thousands of mosques have been built, as well as madrassas (religious schools) and more and more people are choosing to express their religious identity through avenues typically associated with Islam, such as hijabs (for women) and long beards (for men). Naturally, this resurgence of Islam has sparked a debate among the people of Kyrgyzstan about how Islam fits into the national and cultural Kyrgyz identity and what role it should play in society.
This is the story I will explore through the Fulbright-National Geographic Digital Storytelling Fellowship. The story of how religious identity has developed in Kyrgyzstan and how the Kyrgyz people are or are not using religion as an indicator of Kyrgyz national identity. I will be traveling around the country to interview people and gather stories relating to the topic of religious identity in Kyrgyzstan. Through this fellowship I aim to not only learn more about the history of religion and religious identity in Kyrgyzstan, but also to show how diverse Islam and Muslim identity is across cultures.